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2  Online Cataloging

Chapter contents

2.1  Types and Levels of Cataloging
2.2  Creating Bibliographic Records
2.3  Transcribing Cataloging Copy
2.4  Full, Minimal, and Abbreviated-Level Cataloging
2.5  PCC Standard Records
2.6  Language of Cataloging
2.7  Character Set
2.8  Punctuation

 

This chapter contains instructions on general cataloging practices within WorldCat.

2.1  Types and Levels of Cataloging

Types of cataloging

There are three categories of online cataloging activity.

  • Copy cataloging. If a matching bibliographic record exists in WorldCat, optionally modify the record for local use, set holdings, optionally create associated Local Holdings Records (LHRs), and optionally export a copy of the record with your modifications. Do not replace the master record. WorldShare Management Services (WMS) users may instead create Local Bibliographic Data Records (LBDs).
  • Original cataloging. If no matching bibliographic record exists in WorldCat, create a new master record in accord with current cataloging practices, e.g., Resource Description & Access (RDA). If local edits are needed, then follow the steps listed under copy cataloging. For more information about original cataloging, see section 2.2, Creating Bibliographic Records.
  • Transcribing cataloging copy. If no matching bibliographic record exists in WorldCat and there is an existing printed or other non-machine-readable record available, create a new master record using data found in the existing non-MARC record. For more information about transcribing cataloging copy, see section 2.3, Transcribing Cataloging Copy.

For information on determining whether an existing bibliographic record matches an item to be cataloged versus the need to create a new bibliographic record, see chapter 4, When to Input a New Record.

For information about correcting existing bibliographic records, see chapter 5, Quality Assurance.

Levels of cataloging

There are three levels of cataloging that indicate the completeness of bibliographic records. These levels are generally defined in terms of cataloging standards such as Resource Description & Access (RDA) or Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd edition (AACR2).

  • Full-level cataloging. Records that contain all the applicable core-designated elements in RDA (RDA 1.3) or meet the requirements of AACR2 second-level description (AACR2 1.0D2). BIBCO Standard Records and CONSER Standard Records are also considered full-level cataloging. ELvl is coded blank, 1, or I.
  • Minimal-level cataloging. Records that lack one or more applicable core-designated elements in RDA (RDA 1.3) or meet the requirements of AACR2 first-level description (AACR2 1.0D1). ELvl is coded 7, K, or M.
  • Abbreviated-level cataloging. Brief records that do not meet the requirements of Minimal-level cataloging specifications. ELvl is coded 3.
For more information on levels of cataloging, see section 2.4, Full, Minimal, and Abbreviated-Level Cataloging.

2.2  Creating Bibliographic Records

 

Whether you are creating new bibliographic records as a result of original cataloging or transcribing cataloging copy, use the following guidelines.

Description conventions

Indicate the cataloging instructions used by coding Desc and, if appropriate, field 040 subfield ǂe with codes found in the Description Convention Source Codes. In the cooperative environment of WorldCat, OCLC strongly encourages the use of standard description conventions. If you are using your own description conventions for archival or rare materials, enter the code local followed by a slash and your MARC organization code in field 040 subfield ǂe, e.g., ǂe local/DFo.

Language of cataloging

Indicate the language of cataloging in field 040 subfield ǂb. For information on inputting the language of cataloging see section 2.6, Language of Cataloging, and chapter 4, When to Input a New Record.

Character sets

OCLC provides the capability to include all Unicode characters in bibliographic records. For a list of available scripts, see the Unicode Character Code Charts. Include non-Latin scripts in your original cataloging or transcribed cataloging copy if you have the expertise and knowledge to do so. For more information, see section 2.7, Character Sets.

You may provide romanized, transliterated, or Latin-script equivalent data associated with a non-Latin script. For English-language cataloging, follow the ALA-LC Romanization Tables. For cataloging in other languages, follow recognized standards for romanized, transliterated, or Latin-script equivalent data associated with non-Latin scripts, such as e.g., ISO transliteration standards.

Verifying access points

For cataloging in English, search the LC/NACO Authority File and use the established forms of names and preferred titles found there. If not found, construct the access point according to RDA or AACR2. For original cataloging in other languages, search applicable authority files and use the established forms of names and preferred titles found there. If not found, construct the access point according to instructions or rules used to create the bibliographic record.

For transcribed cataloging, see section 2.3, Transcribing Cataloging Copy below.

For subject access points, search applicable authority files and use the established subjects found there.

GMDs and carrier, media, and content types

General Material Designations (GMDs) are a controlled list of generic terms describing the medium of the item. Prior to AACR2, they were also known as media qualifiers. Do not include GMDs in bibliographic records. Instead, prefer use of content, media, and carrier terms and codes in fields 336, 337, and 338. For more information, see field 245 subfield ǂh.

Resolving conflicts between practices

Many cataloging communities, whether national, regional, based on language of cataloging, or format of matieral to be cataloged, maintain their own cataloging policies.

For cataloging in English, generally follow LC-PCC practice when creating new records. If OCLC practice conflicts with LC-PCC practice, follow OCLC practice.

For cataloging in other languages, generally follow your community's practice. If OCLC practice conflicts with your community's practice, follow OCLC practice.

The following list provides guidelines to resolve conflicts between LC-PCC practice and OCLC practice for cataloging in English under RDA.

Policy statements Guideline
LC-PCC PS 0.0 and LC-PCC PS 2.1 Disregard. Use chapter 4, When to Input a New Record. Apply with the following exceptions:
  • Separate serial records may be created for cumulations in most cases
  • You may catalog a publication of an ongoing named conference as a serial without waiting for evidence from several issues that the name of the conference and title have remained constant
  • You may catalog serial supplements to monographs as separate serials
LC-PCC PS 2.3.2.9 Apply with one exception: For sound recordings, describe the item as a unit or make a description for each separately titled item

Libraries participating in cooperative programs with the Library of Congress (i.e., BIBCO, CONSER, NACO, PCC) must follow appropriate LC-PCC PS for records and access points created as part of those programs.

The following list provides guidelines to resolve conflicts between LC-PCC practice and OCLC practice for cataloging in English under AACR2.

Rule interpretation Guideline
LCRI 1.0 Disregard. Use chapter 4, When to Input a New Record.
LCRI 1.1C Disregard. Do not include any GMDs.
LCRI 1.1G2 Apply with one exception: For sound recordings, describe the item as a unit or make a description for each separately titled item
LCRI 6.1G1 Disregard. Apply AACR2.
LCRI 6.1G4 Disregard. You may apply the optional AACR2 rule.
LCRI 12.0 Apply with one exception: Separate serial records may be created for cumulations in most cases
LCRI 12.0A Apply with the following exceptions:
  • You may catalog a publication of an ongoing named conference as a serial without waiting for evidence from several issues that the name of the conference and title have remained constant
  • You may catalog serial supplements to monographs as separate serials
LCRI 13.5 Disregard. Apply AACR2.

2.3  Transcribing Cataloging Copy

Master bibliographic record

When you create a master bibliographic record from a printed or other non-machine-readable record, you are transcribing cataloging copy. Such cataloging copy may include current RDA or AACR2 cataloging such as cataloging-in-publication data that is in the book. Alternatively, it may include printed cataloging copy that is pre-RDA and pre-AACR2 such as data found in the The National Union Catalog, Pre-1956 Imprints.

Since OCLC loads current Library of Congress (LC) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) cataloging as well as cataloging from many other sources, catalogers seldom transcribe current cataloging copy.

Since many libraries have completed projects to convert their non-machine-readable cataloging and such data is represented in WorldCat, catalogers seldom transcribe printed cataloging. For those rare cases when cataloging copy exists and needs to be transcribed, this section provides guidelines for the transcription of both current and retrospective cataloging copy.

Cataloging-in-publication

Cataloging-in-publication (CIP) data found within a resource, whether it claims to have been provided by a national library or another source, should be treated as pre-publication data. As stated in LC-PCC PS 2.2.2.1, "Do not consider pre-publication cataloging data (foreign or domestic) appearing in the item as a source of information for transcribed elements." Verify all authorized access points appearing in CIP data in the appropriate authority file(s).

Reproductions from copy

You may use existing cataloging for the original item to create a new record for a microform or photocopy reproduction. Treat the new record as your institution's original cataloging. Code Srce appropriately and enter your OCLC symbol in field 040 subfield ǂa. For more information see section 3.1, Provider-Neutral Cataloging, section 3.1.2, Photocopies and Print-on-Demand Reproductions, and section 3.3.4, Microforms.

Srce:     d
040     XXX ǂb eng ǂc XXX

Verifying access points

You must search the appropriate authority file to verify forms of entry in fields x00, x10, x11, and x30. If the forms of name and preferred title entries are not in the authority file, OCLC encourages you to construct the access point or preferred title according to the appropriate instructions, but you are not required to do so.

If an access point appearing on the printed cataloging copy was incorrectly constructed, revise that access point to an appropriate form

For cataloging in English, many pre-AACR2 access points for personal names, corporate bodies, etc., are similar to corresponding RDA or AACR2 forms. However, some pre-AACR2 access points will never have corresponding RDA or AACR2 forms. Often, these access points include obsolete elements. Their inclusion in WorldCat and in local catalogs usually results in split files of access points for similar materials because of different practices under AACR2 and older instructions. If you construct replacement access point(s), update or delete the old access point(s) in favor of corresponding name, title, subject, and/or genre access point(s). Examples:

Example of pre-AACR2 personal name with obsolete elements:

100 1   Francesco d'Assisi, ǂc Saint. ǂk Legend. ǂp Fioretti. ǂl English. ǂf 1959
Would now be formulated as a preferred title and subject access point:
130 0   Fioretti di San Frencesco. ǂl English. ǂf 1959
600 0 0 Francis, ǂc of Assisi, Saint, ǂd 1182-1226 ǂv Legends

Example of pre-AACR2 corporate name with obsolete elements:

110 2   Jews. ǂk Liturgy and ritual. ǂt Hagadah. ǂf 1925
Would now be formulated as a preferred title and subject access points:
130 0   Haggadah
650   0 Haggadot ǂv Texts
650   0 Seder ǂx Liturgy ǂv Texts
650   0 Judaism ǂx Liturgy ǂv Texts

Example of pre-AACR2 access point with obsolete elements:

130 0   Arthur, King ǂk (Romances, etc.)
Would now be formulated as a subject and/or genre access points:
650   0 Arthurian romances
655   7 Arthurian romances ǂ2 lcgft

Changes and omissions

Category Guideline
Access points If an access point appearing on the printed cataloging copy was incorrectly constructed, revise that access point to an appropriate form.

If the RDA or AACR2 form cannot be verified online and a single surname appears without a forename and is instead followed by a long dash, do not enter the long dash (e.g., enter Dezauche, -- as Dezauche). If an asterisk precedes an added access point to indicate that the personal name has been revised, do not enter the asterisk.

Some title access points are inverted (e.g., Title: Retail Terms, A Manual of). Use field 246 for such titles.

Printed cataloging copy for a work published in English but translated from a language using a non-Latin script may have a phrase in the form Russian title: [title in Cyrillic alphabet] (transliterated: [title in Latin alphabet]) following the subject access points. Do not enter these phrases and titles. They are not part of the access points because they are not preceded by a Roman numeral.

Limited cataloging records, which are identified by a double dagger ( ‡ ) after the control number, do not have series access points. If you add series access points, treat the resulting record as having been upgraded by your library. Enter your institution's symbol in field 040 subfield ǂd.
Analytical versus comprehensive entry If the printed cataloging copy consists of separate bibliographic records for each separately titled work, a record for a multipart item and records for their individual parts may coexist. If a record for an item as a whole exists, you may create a record for a part and vice versa. This includes the legitimately separate records for musical scores, parts, and scores and parts. You may also create "In" analytic records for items physically contained within other items.

In the case of certain sound recordings, cartographic materials, microforms, and rare materials that lack a collective title, you may choose to describe the resource either comprehensively as a unit or analytically with separate descriptions for parts of the resource. For more information, see RDA 1.5, 2.1 through 2.3, and related LC-PCC PSs, and AACR2 rule 1.1G and related LCRIs.
Capitalization Follow current practice
Coded elements Certain coded elements must be included in the record following I-level input standard for such data. Do not code MRec.
Content designation Use the current content designation when an old, corresponding content designation has been replaced. See individual field descriptions for more information on tagging and entering data in subfields used for pre-AACR2 bibliographic data.
Copyright number Do not enter copyright numbers that appear in the lower left corner
Data to omit Omit binding information that appears in the physical description.

Omit information not used under RDA or AACR2.

Printed copy Enter
Half-title: Library of philosophy
Ed. by J.H. Muirhead
490 1    Library of philosophy
Diacritics Old German uses a small e instead of an umlaut over a, o, and u. Enter an umlaut instead of the small e.
Full name notes On some printed cataloging copy, full name notes such as Secular name or Name originally appear in brackets following the added access points. Do not enter these full name notes (e.g., [Secular name: Maria Coronel]; [Name originally: Selig Cassel]).
Misplaced information When information appears in an area of the description that does not normally belong there under current practice, enter such information in the proper field or subfield unless the information is grammatically linked to other data where it appears. Use judgment.

Printed copy Enter
The Little office of the Blessed Virgin Mary, enlarged edition. 250      Enlarged edition
cover-title, 29-52 p. 24 cm. 300      29-52 pages ; ǂc 24 cm
500      Cover title
Recataloging If you have printed cataloging copy and the item in hand, you may recatalog the item according to RDA or AACR2. The record must meet at least the K-level input standard. See section 2.2, Creating Bibliographic Records.
Spacing between initials In descriptive cataloging fields 2xx-5xx, close up spaces between single initials in accordance with current practice (e.g., GPO, Ph. D.)
U.S., Gt.Brit. Enter U.S. as United States and Gt.Brit. as Great Britain for name access points used as the highest level of an official body of the country

Field level guidelines

Fields Information
010 See field 010 for guidelines on the input of LC control numbers
028 Enter the publisher or distributor number in field 028. These numbers are no longer entered in field 260.
040 Enter your institution's symbol in field 040 subfield ǂd if you have modified national library cataloging
245 If ellipses occur within the data, enter a space before and after the ellipses. If the ellipses are followed by a mark of punctuation, do not enter a space following the ellipses.

If two vertical parallel lines appear on the copy, enter space-slash-space instead of these vertical lines. Such lines show line breaks in titles of works that are printed in verse for rare material.

If the title has superscript and/or subscript alphabetic characters, enter the characters as regular lowercase characters, except in formulas.

Printed copy Enter
A-BA (n-1) A-BA ([superscript] n-1)
If the title portion has underlining, do not enter the underlining.

Do not enter GMDs when transcribing AACR2 or earlier cataloging copy.
255 Use field 255 for the scale notation of cartographic materials cataloged under both current and earlier cataloging instructions. Do not use field 507 for the scale notation for cartographic materials.
260/264 Include information relating to the publication, printing, distribution, issue, release, or production of a work in field 264 for RDA cataloging and prefer use of field 264 for all new cataloging.

If a reprint statement has the appearance of a double imprint, enter the first imprint in field 500 with the caption Originally published:. Enter the reprint data in field 260/264.

If a place name is incomplete (e.g., Rio), enter the complete name with brackets around the data not appearing on the printed cataloging (e.g., Rio [de Janeiro]).

If two places of publication are separated by a conjunction or a hyphen (e.g., Berlin und Leipzig or New York-London), treat the two places as separate places of publication using separate ǂa subfields (e.g., Berlin ; Leipzig or New York ; London).

Separation of two place names by a hyphen in German imprint statements usually indicates that one place is located near a larger, better known place (e.g., Hamburg-Altona). Treat such entries as a single place of publication. Two place names separated by bei or b. (e.g., Ratingen b. Düsseldorf) constitute a single place.
300 Do not enter the statement Cover title in field 300. Enter Cover title in field 500.

If a statement of reprint is included, do not enter the information in field 300. Use the appropriate field 5xx for this information.
490/8xx Enter all series statements as they appear in the printed cataloging copy in field 490, correcting any obvious errors. If you choose to trace the series, supply the series access point in the appropriate 8xx field.

Use the appropriate authority file to verify as much of a series access point as possible. If only the name portion of a name/title series access point is verifiable online, enter the name portion to match the form in the name authority records.

If the series cannot be verified, OCLC encourages you to construct an RDA or AACR2 access point for the series in an 8xx field, but you are not required to do so.
5xx Do not include copy- or institution-specific details such as local binding, imperfections, incompleteness, or copy number in the master record. For information about local data, see section 3.4, Local Information in Records.
6xx Verify subject access points in the appropriate authority file. For LCSH, OCLC encourages you to construct the subject according to the Subject Heading Manual.

If the subject access point is not derived from a standard thesaurus but is compatible with the form of access points from that thesaurus and it has value to institutions other than yours, use 6xx with second indicator 4 if no other subject access points are present.

Spell out abbreviations according to current practice (e.g., spell out Bibl. as Bibliography).

Do not enter subject access points from an unknown thesaurus. Do not enter portions of subject access points enclosed in brackets.

If a portion of a subject access point is enclosed in subscript parentheses, enter the data, but do not enter the parentheses.

Printed copy Enter
[Labor supply–Stat.–Russian] (Do not enter)
Fruit [–Hardiness] Fruit
Wages–(Furniture Workers)–United States Wages ǂx Furniture workers ǂz United States
Spraying and dusting residues (in agriculture) [–Testing] Spraying and dusting residues in agriculture

2.4  Full, Minimal, and Abbreviated-Level Cataloging

Introduction

Historically, in cooperation with OCLC advisory groups, OCLC established input standards for entering bibliographic data into WorldCat. Unless noted otherwise, these standards conform to national standards. For more information on these standards, see the Library of Congress document MARC 21 for Bibliographic Data, National Level Full & Minimal Requirements.

In addition, OCLC adopted the core-level standard that was defined in 1994 by the Cooperative Cataloging Council (now known as the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC)). Core-level records met the requirements of AACR2 first-level description (AACR2 1.0D1) and some of the requirements of AACR2 second-level description (AACR2 1.0D2). ELvl was coded 4.

Note: Core-level record standards are now obsolete. Do not input records with ELvl coded 4.

For historical information about core-level standards, see section 2.5, PCC Standard Records below.

Encoding level

The code in ELvl identifies the standard to which a record conforms. Data required for online cataloging may not be required by cataloging instructions. Requirements for each encoding level have varied over time. Correspondence between data in records and descriptive cataloging instructions is not exact.

Full-level cataloging

Full-level cataloging seeks to ensure inclusion of the essential data elements necessary to meet user needs. It is a solid "floor" description of a resource that can be built upon in a shared environment. Full-level cataloging does not preclude the use of data in a bibliographic description representing more extensive cataloging treatment.

Generally, full-level cataloging meets the requirements of RDA Core or AACR2 second-level description. Full-level cataloging uses ELvl codes I or blank.

Create full-level records when possible using the following guidelines as appropriate:

Minimal-level cataloging

Minimal-level cataloging represents the minimum data necessary to identify an item. Generally, the records meet the requirements of AACR2 first-level description, rule 1.0D1. Minimal level does not prohibit the addition of data that you think is necessary. Minimal-level cataloging uses ELvl codes 7 or K.

Users may upgrade minimal-level records. For more information, see chapter 5, Quality Assurance.

Create records according to the minimal-level standard, as appropriate. Constraints on resources, collection development policies, and cataloging priority can also determine the kinds of materials receiving minimal-level cataloging. For example:

  • Conversion of older cataloging records that do not contain full bibliographic data
  • Materials in foreign languages in which you lack expertise
  • Materials such as theses and dissertations, pamphlets, exhibition catalogs, analytics, audiovisual materials, technical reports, and locally produced publications of little interest outside the issuing institution

See the field descriptions in this manual for lists of I-level and K-level standards for the OCLC-MARC Format. Use the following guidelines for minimal-level records.

  • Generally, use default values to code the fixed field
  • Enter series statements that appear on the piece. You are not required to create a series access point.
  • For works entered under title, you must include one added access point if applicable or available. For works entered under the name of a person or corporate body, no added access points are required.

Abbreviated-level cataloging

Brief records that do not meet the requirements of minimal-level cataloging specifications. Abbreviated-level cataloging uses ELvl code 3.

Because abbreviated-level records may not meet minimal-level standards, users with full-level cataloging authorization or higher can upgrade these records. Depending on the authorization level, users may upgrade to a higher encoding level. For more information, see chapter 5, Quality Assurance.

Generally, Dublin Core records are treated according to abbreviated-level guidelines. Dublin Core users apply various standards when creating Dublin Core records:

When entering data in abbreviated-level records, use the following guidelines:

Element Input standard Note
Type Mandatory  
BLvl Mandatory  
Ctry Mandatory  
Dates Mandatory  
Desc Mandatory  
DtSt Mandatory  
ELvl Mandatory Code with value 3
Form Mandatory  
Lang Mandatory  
Srce Mandatory  
010 Required if applicable  
020 Required if applicable  
022 Required if applicable  
028 Required if applicable  
040 System supplied  
042 Required if applicable Omit (unless created from Dublin Core record, in which case code dc is system supplied)
1xx/7xx Required if applicable Include one 7xx field if applicable and if 1xx is not applicable. For some data from non-MARC sources, field 720 may be appropriate.
245 ǂa or ǂk Mandatory  
245 ǂb, ǂc, ǂn, ǂp Required if applicable  
246 Required if applicable Emphasize varying titles, such as those containing symbols or numbers
250 Required if applicable  
260/264 ǂa, ǂb, ǂc Required if applicable Other subfields are optional
300 ǂa Required if applicable  
490 Required if applicable Transcribe series, if present, with 1st indicator 0
856 ǂu Required if applicable Other subfields are optional

All other elements not mentioned above are optional.

2.5  PCC Standard Records

Guidelines

The Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) provides metadata application profiles for both a BIBCO Standard Record (BSR) for monographic resources and a CONSER Standard Record (CSR) for serial resources. These standards establish a baseline set of elements emphasizing access points over descriptive data, providing catalogers with a set of required elements appropriate to various bibliographic formats. The standard also does not preclude the use of any data in a bibliographic description representing more extensive cataloging treatment.

These elements have been determined to support user needs to find, identify, select, and obtain resources. While PCC records following these standards contain code pcc in field 042 and must contain access points backed up by authority records, all libraries are encouraged to use the BSR and CSR as models of good full-level cataloging practice when creating new records or replacing existing records.

2.6  Language of Cataloging

Policy for parallel records

Parallel records are defined as multiple records for the same manifestation of a work that are described in different languages. Only one record per language of descriptive cataloging is allowed within WorldCat for each manifestation of a work.

In the case of multiple scripts representing the same language, only one record per language of cataloging is allowed in WorldCat. For example, in Chinese language cataloging, do not create separate parallel records in both Chinese traditional and simplified scripts. Transcribe the script as it appears on the resource. If a title access point in the alternative script is needed, use field 246.

Previous policy

Previously, records for the same manifestation but cataloged in different languages, such as English, Spanish, and French, were considered duplicate records. In 2003, OCLC policy changed to allow for parallel records within WorldCat by language of cataloging. OCLC no longer considers these records duplicates, but considers them parallel records.

Identifying the language of cataloging

The language of cataloging is characterized by the use of a single language in cataloger supplied elements. Field 040 subfield ǂb indicates the language of the cataloging used to create the record. Subfield ǂb is mandatory and should be explicitly coded.

The language is indicated by a three-letter language code. For a list of these codes, see the MARC Code List for Languages.

The language of descriptive cataloging, recorded in field 040 subfield ǂb, is not to be confused with the language of the item, which is recorded in the fixed-field element Lang of the record.

Example

Lang:     ger
040     XXX ǂb fre ǂc XXX
[A German language work cataloged in French language of cataloging]

Some of the more common fields useful for identifying the language of cataloging are:

Fields Information to consider
300 Terms and abbreviations in subfields ǂa, ǂb, ǂc, ǂe, ǂf, ǂg, and ǂ3
310 Terms in subfield ǂa
321 Terms in subfield ǂa
362 Terms in subfield ǂa
336 Terms in subfields ǂa and ǂ3 as well as any language code in subfield ǂ2
337 Terms in subfields ǂa and ǂ3 as well as any language code in subfield ǂ2
338 Terms in subfields ǂa and ǂ3 as well as any language code in subfield ǂ2
340 Terms in subfields ǂa, ǂb, ǂc, ǂd, ǂe, ǂf, ǂg, ǂh, ǂi, ǂj, ǂk, ǂm, ǂn, ǂo, and ǂ3 as well as any language code in subfield ǂ2
341 Terms in subfields ǂa, ǂb, ǂc, ǂd, ǂe, and ǂ3 as well as any language code in subfield ǂ2
342 Terms in subfields ǂa, ǂb, ǂu, and ǂv as well as any language code in subfield ǂ2
343 Terms in subfields ǂa, ǂb, ǂg, ǂh, and ǂi
344 Terms in subfields ǂa, ǂb, ǂc, ǂd, ǂe, ǂf, ǂg, ǂh, and ǂ3 as well as any language code in subfield ǂ2
345 Terms in subfields ǂa, ǂb, and ǂ3 as well as any language code in subfield ǂ2
346 Terms in subfields ǂa, ǂb, and ǂ3 as well as any language code in subfield ǂ2
347 Terms in subfields ǂa, ǂb, ǂc, ǂd, ǂe, ǂf, and ǂ3 as well as any language code in subfield ǂ2
348 Terms in subfields ǂa and ǂ3 as well as any language code in subfield ǂ2
5xx Terms in non-quoted notes
Access points Relator terms in subfields ǂi and ǂe in x00 and x10 fields and in subfields ǂi and ǂj in x11 fields

Note: The language of the subject access points is not a factor when determining the language of cataloging.

A record that contains descriptive cataloging data in more than one language is not standard practice. More specifically, a record where the fields, noted in the table above, contain data in different languages is considered a hybrid record.

These records should be corrected to represent a single language of cataloging. See section, Best practices for editing hybrid records, below.

Basis for creating parallel records

When searching WorldCat, if the matching record is cataloged in a language other than that used by the inputting library, the library may enter a parallel record in its language of descriptive cataloging. For example, a library using Spanish as the language of cataloging that only finds a record for a resource with English as the language of cataloging may create a record with Spanish as the language of cataloging for the same resource.

Using existing records

When using an existing record for copy cataloging, do not change the language of cataloging when upgrading the master record unless the language of cataloging coded in field 040 subfield ǂb does not accurately reflect the actual language of the cataloging record.

Example of records, representing the same resource, appropriately cataloged in English and Spanish.
Elements in bold identify the language of cataloging in the relevant fields.

Lang     eng
040     XXX ǂb eng ǂe rda ǂc XXX
100 1   Bear, Mark F., ǂe author
245 1 0 Neuroscience : ǂb exploring the brain / ǂc Mark F. Bear, Barry W. Connors, Michael A. Paradiso
264   1 Philadelphia : ǂb Wolters Kluwer, ǂc [2016]
264   4 ǂc ©2016
300     xlii, 975 pages : ǂb illustrations ; ǂc 29 cm
336     text ǂb txt ǂ2 rdacontent
337     unmediated ǂb n ǂ2 rdamedia
338     volume ǂb nc ǂ2 rdacarrier
504     Includes bibliographical references (pages 925-952) and index
Lang     eng
040     XXX ǂb spa ǂe rda ǂc XXX
100 1   Bear, Mark F., ǂe autor
245 1 0 Neuroscience : ǂb exploring the brain / ǂc Mark F. Bear, Barry W. Connors, Michael A. Paradiso
264   1 Philadelphia : ǂb Wolters Kluwer, ǂc [2016]
264   4 ǂc ©2016
300     xlii, 975 páginas : ǂb ilustraciones ; ǂc 29 cm
336     texto ǂb txt ǂ2 rdacontent/spa
337     sin mediación ǂb n ǂ2 rdamedia/spa
338     volumen ǂb nc ǂ2 rdacarrier/spa
504     Incluye referencias bibliográficas (páginas 925-952) e índice

Example of records, representing the same resource, appropriately cataloged in French and English.
Elements in bold identify the language of cataloging in the relevant fields.

Lang     fre
040     XXX ǂb fre ǂe rda ǂc XXX
022     0843-106X ǂl 0843-106X
041 0   fre ǂa eng ǂa ger ǂa jpn
245 0 0 Décision, Montréal
264   1 Montréal : ǂb Communauté urbaine de Montréal, Office de l'expansion économique, ǂc [1982]-
300     volumes : ǂb illustrations en couleur, cartes en couleur ; ǂc 28 cm
310     Annuel
336     texte ǂb txt ǂ2 rdacontent/fre
337     sans médiation ǂb n ǂ2 rdamedia/fre
338     volume ǂb nc ǂ2 rdacarrier/fre
362 1   Paraît depuis 1982
546     Texte en français, en anglais, en allemand, et en japonais
588 0   1985
588 1   1985
Lang     fre
040     XXX ǂb eng ǂe rda ǂc XXX
022     0843-106X ǂl 0843-106X
041 0   fre ǂa eng ǂa ger ǂa jpn
245 1 0 Décision, Montréal
264   1 Montréal : ǂb Communauté urbaine de Montréal, Office de l'expansion économique, ǂc [1982]-
300     volumes : ǂb color illustrations, color maps ; ǂc 28 cm
310     Annual
336     text ǂb txt ǂ2 rdacontent
337     unmediated ǂb n ǂ2 rdamedia
338     volume ǂb nc ǂ2 rdacarrier
362 1   Began with 1982 issue
546     Text in French, English, German, and Japanese.
588 0   1985
588 1   1985

Example of records, representing the same resource, appropriately cataloged in Chinese and English.
Elements in bold identify the language of cataloging in the relevant fields.

  Lang     chi
  040     XXX ǂb chi ǂe ccr ǂc XXX
  020     9789862355923 ǂq (ping zhuang)
  041 1   chi ǂh eng
100 1   安德斯 ǂq (Anders, Charlie Jane), ǂe
100 1   Andesi ǂq (Anders, Charlie Jane), ǂe zuo
245 1 0 群鳥飛舞的世界末日 / ǂc 查莉.珍.安德斯 作 ; 謝靜雯譯 = All the birds in the sky / Charlie Jane Anders
245 1 0 Qun niao fei wu de shi jie mo ri / ǂc cha li.zhen.an de si zuo ; xie jing wen yi = All the birds in the sky / Charlie Jane Anders
250     初版
250     Chu ban
260     台北市 : ǂb 臉譜, ǂc 2017[民國106]
260     Tai bei shi : ǂb Lian pu, ǂc 2017 [minguo 106]
300     366 ; ǂc 21 公分
300     366 mian ; ǂc 21 gong fen
  336     文本 ǂb txt ǂ2 rdacontent/chi
  337     无中介 ǂb n ǂ2 rdamedia/chi
  338     卷/册 ǂb nc ǂ2 rdacarrier/chi
  Lang     chi
  040     XXX ǂb eng ǂe rda ǂc XXX
  020     9789862355923 ǂq (paperback)
  041 1   chi ǂh eng
  100 1   Anders, Charlie, ǂe author
245
1 0
群鳥飛舞的世界末日 / ǂc 查莉・珍・安德斯 ; 謝靜雯譯 = All the birds in the sky / Charlie Jane Anders
245 1 0 Qun niao fei wu de shi jie mo ri / ǂc Chali Zhen Andesi ; Xie Jingwen yi = All the birds in the sky / Charlie Jane Anders
250     初版
250     Chu ban
264 1   台北市 : ǂb 臉譜出版, ǂc 2017
264 1   Taibei Shi : ǂb Lian pu chu ban, ǂc 2017
  300     366 pages ; ǂc 21 cm
  336     text ǂb txt ǂ2 rdacontent
  337     unmediated ǂb n ǂ2 rdamedia
  338     volume ǂb nc ǂ2 rdacarrier

Best practices for editing hybrid records

Take these factors into account when considering a change in coding for the language of cataloging in records with more than one language of descriptive cataloging:

  • The intent of the cataloging agency
  • The language of cataloging of holding libraries
  • The number of descriptive cataloging elements in different languages. As a general rule, a record's language of cataloging should reflect the predominant language used in the descriptive cataloging elements.

Based on these factors, if you determine that the language of the record matches the language used in your institution, then correct the errors and use the record for cataloging.

If you determine that the language of the record does not match the language used in your institution because no record currently exists for the rsource in your language, then create a new record. If you are unsure, send record to WorldCat Metadata Quality for staff to review.

However, if you suspect that the record was incorrectly changed from one cataloging language into another then contact WorldCat Metadata Quality. The WorldCat Metadata Quality staff will analyze the data and decide whether to change the record back to its original language of cataloging.

Examples of hybrid records

These examples demonstrate common hybrid record situations. Use judgment in dealing with hybrid records that do not reflect the examples below.

Example of a hybrid record where language of cataloging coding does not match the physical description.

Lang     spa
040     XXX ǂb eng ǂc XXX
020     9786079419462
020     6079419467
050   KGF304.M37 ǂb P4 2015
100 1   Pérez Reguera García, Alejandra, ǂe autor
245 1 0 Biografía política de Rafael Martínez de Escobar Urgell / ǂc Alejandra Pérez Reguera García, Alfonso Pérez Reguera Martínez de Escobar
264   México : ǂb Instituto Nacional de Estudios Históricos de las Revoluciones de México, ǂc 2015
300     358 p. : ǂb il. ; ǂc 28 cm
336     texto ǂb txt ǂ2 rdacontent/spa
337     sin mediación ǂb n ǂ2 rdamedia/spa
338     volumen ǂb nc ǂ2 rdacarrier/spa
504     Bibliografía: p. 351-358
[The intent of the contributing library was to create a Spanish language of cataloging record. Only the contributing library has attached holdings.]

This record does not have subfield ǂb in field 040, so the language of cataloging is assumed to be English. However, field 100 subfield ǂe, field 300, and field 504 are in Spanish. This is a hybrid record. The contributing library catalogs most of its material in Spanish. All fields, except for field 040 subfield ǂb indicate that the language of cataloging is Spanish.

If the language of cataloging used at your library is Spanish, add subfield ǂb coded spa to field 040.

If the language of cataloging used at your library is not Spanish, search for a record in your language of cataloging. If no record is found, create a new record, as appropriate. Report the hybrid record to WorldCat Metadata Quality for correction.

Example of a hybrid record where language of cataloging coding and physical description do not match notes.

040     XXX ǂb dan ǂc XXX
020     1138907677 ǂq (indb.)
020     9781138907676 ǂq (indb.)
100 1   Bolin, Göran
245 1 0 Media generations : ǂb experience, identity and mediatised social change / ǂc Göran Bolin
260     London ; ǂa New York : ǂb Routledge, ǂc 2017
300     xi, 149 s.
336     tekst ǂb txt ǂ2 rdacontent/dan
337     umedieret ǂb n ǂ2 rdamedia/dan
338     bind ǂb nc ǂ2 rdacarrier/dan
504     Includes bibliographical references and index
[The intent of the contributing library was to create a Danish language of cataloging record. Three other Danish libraries have attached holdings.]

This record has the language of cataloging in field 040 subfield ǂb as dan, field 020 subfield ǂq has indb. for indbundet, field 300 has s. for sider, but it also includes field 504 in English, which makes the record a hybrid record. The contributing institution catalogs most of its material in Danish. Only field 504 is inconsistent with the language of cataloging.

If the language of cataloging used at your library is Danish, then change the note in field 504 to Danish: Indeholder bibliografiske referencer og indeks.

If the language of cataloging used at your library is not Danish, search for a record in your language of cataloging. If no record is found, create a new record, as appropriate. Report the hybrid record to WorldCat Metadata Quality for correction.

Example of a hybrid record where language of cataloging coding and fields 33x do not match the extent and notes.

Lang     spa
040     XXX ǂb fre ǂe ncafnor ǂc XXX
020     9786070274626
020     6070274628
245 0 0 Elites en México y España : ǂb estudios sobre política y cultura / ǂc editores Evelia Trejo Estrada, Aurora Cano Andaluz, Manuel Suárez Cortina ; Ángeles Barrio Alonso... [et al.]
260     México : ǂb Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México : ǂa Santander : ǂb Universidad de Cantabria, ǂc 2015
300     549 pages ; ǂc 23 cm
336     texte ǂb txt ǂ2 rdacontent/fre
337     sans médiation ǂb n ǂ2 rdamedia/fre
338     volume ǂb nc ǂ2 rdacarrier/fre
504     Includes bibliographical references (pages 459-516) and index
[The intent of the contributing library was to create a French language of cataloging record. The contributing library is the only holding library.]

This record either became a hybrid record as a result of editing or was entered originally as a hybrid record. Field 040 subfield ǂb is coded fre along with the 33x fields, the extent could be either French or English, and the unquoted note is in English.

If the language of cataloging used at your library is French, you may convert this record into a French language record by editing field 504 to French: Comprend des références bibliographiques (pages 459-516) et un index.

If the language of cataloging used at your library is not French, search for a record in your language of cataloging. If no record is found, create a new record, as appropriate. Report the hybrid record to WorldCat Metadata Quality for correction.

Example of a hybrid record where language of cataloging coding, the 33x fields, and second unquoted note do not match extent and first unquoted note.

Lang     eng
040     XXX ǂb dut ǂe fobidrtb ǂc XXX
245 0 0 Justice at city hall / ǂc Caleb Atemi (ed.)
260     Nairobi : ǂb The Kenyan Section of the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ Kenya), ǂc 2013
300     1 online resource (VIII, 80 pages) ǂb illustrations
336     tekst ǂb txt ǂ2 rdacontent/dut
337     computer ǂb n ǂ2 rdamedia/dut
338     online bron ǂb nc ǂ2 rdacarrier/dut
500     A joint report by ICJ Kenya and TI Kenya on municipal and city courts
504     Met noten
[The intent of the contributing library was to create a Dutch language of cataloging record, but English libraries have attached their holdings]

In this example, fields 300 and 500 are both English language of cataloging, while field 040 subfield ǂb, the 33x fields, and field 504 are in Dutch. While the inputting library's intent was to input a Dutch language of cataloging record, most of the libraries who have holdings attached are English language libraries.

If the language of cataloging used at your library is English, change field 040 subfield ǂb from dut to eng and convert the 504 field to an English language field along with the 33x fields.

If the language of cataloging used at your library is not English, search for a record in your language of cataloging. If no record is found, create a new record, as appropriate. Report the hybrid record to WorldCat Metadata Quality for correction.

Example of record where language of cataloging coding, extent, 33x fields, and first unquoted note do not match the second unquoted note.

Lang     eng
040     XXX ǂb ger ǂc XXX
245 0 4 The far left in Australia since 1945 / ǂc edited by Jon Piccini, Evan Smith and Matthew Worley
264     London ; ǂa New York : ǂb Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, ǂc 2019
300     xiv, 285 Seiten ǂc 24 cm
336     Text ǂb txt ǂ2 rdacontent/ger
337     ohne Hilfsmittel zu benutzen ǂb n ǂ2 rdamedia/ger
338     Band ǂb nc ǂ2 rdacarrier/ger
504     Includes bibliographical references and index
500     Erscheinungsjahr 2019 gemäß der Vorlage; Band ist aber schon Juli 2018 erschienen
700 1   Piccini, Jon, ǂe Herausgeber ǂ4 edt ǂ0 (DE-588)1104946424
700 1   Smith, Evan, ǂd 1981- ǂe Herausgeber ǂ4 edt ǂ0 (DE-588)1115813234
700 1   Worley, Matthew, ǂe Herausgeber ǂ4 edt
[The intent of the contributing library was to create a Dutch language of cataloging record. The contributing library is the only holding library.]

In this example, field 040 subfield ǂb should remain ger because German language is used in field 300, field 500, and the relationship designator in field 700, while field 504 is the only note in English.

If the language of cataloging used at your library is German, change field 504 to the German: Enthält Literaturverzeichnis und Index.

If the language of cataloging used at your library is not German, search for a record in your language of cataloging. If no record is found, create a new record, as appropriate. Report the hybrid record to WorldCat Metadata Quality for correction.

Reporting hybrid records

If you cannot correct the master record, you can edit the record locally and also report it so that WorldCat Metadata Quality staff can edit the master record for all OCLC member libraries. For information about reporting methods, see section 5.5, Requesting Changes to Records.

2.7  Character Set

Introduction

Bibliographic records in WorldCat were limited to use of Latin characters in the MARC-8 character set until 1986 when Chinese, Japanese, and Korean scripts were implemented. That was followed by the introduction of other scripts, i.e., Arabic, Armenian, Bengali, Cyrillic, Devanagari, Ethiopic, Greek, Hebrew, Syriac, Tamil, and Thai. OCLC implemented use of all UTF-8 Unicode defined characters in 2016.

In some cases, Unicode offers more than one character or method to express the same text. This flexibility, while useful in ordinary written prose and published texts, often results in unnecessary complexity in the creation and maintenance of bibliographic data. Some Unicode characters, such as control characters, have no functional use in bibliographic records. Many classes of characters, e.g., dingbats, emoticons, game symbols, etc., are unlikely to be needed in bibliographic data.

Some characters have been routinely identified as problematic for users of cataloging copy found in WorldCat. When copying and pasting data from internet resources for inclusion into bibliographic records, be aware that some non-preferred or problematic characters may be included in the copied text. Non-MARC-8 characters are output as numeric character references in MARC-8 records.

OCLC policy

With exceptions noted below, you may enter whatever characters you need to appropriately transcribe and record bibliographic data. If you are creating or authenticating PCC records, follow PCC character set guidelines.

LC-PCC PS 1.4 provides information on characters that cannot be reproduced by available facilities when creating bibliographic data. LC-PCC PS 1.7.5 provides similar information on symbols that cannot be readily reproduced. You may disregard instructions in both policy statements in cases where needed characters are available in the Unicode character set. Optionally, you may follow provisions of both policy statements.

If a non-PCC record has been created following LC-PCC PS 1.4 or LC-PCC PS 1.7.5, you may update the substitute characters or words to their corresponding Unicode counterparts and replace the master record if your authorization allows you to do so. Otherwise, you may edit the record for local use as needed.

If a non-PCC record has been created using Unicode characters in place of the substitute characters or words as outlined in the policy statements, do not update the record to follow provisions of LC-PCC PS 1.4 and LC-PCC PS 1.7.5 unless the record is being authenticated for PCC. You may edit the record for local use as needed.

Example of a record with a title that contains substitute Latin characters, indicated by use of the double underscore, created in accord with LC-PCC PS 1.4:

245 1 0 Ò̳rò̳ Àgbà : ǂb lati o̳wo̳ / ǂc Táíwò Olúwatúnmibí

Example of the same record with a title transcribed with the characters as they appear on the resource:

245 1 0 Ɔ̀rɔ̀ Àgbà : ǂb lati ɔwɔ / ǂc Táíwò Olúwatúnmibí

Example of a record with a title that contains two Greek characters created in accord with LC-PCC PS 1.4:

245 1 0 Structural and biochemical characterization of [alpha]/[beta]-Hydrolase fold enzymes in biotin and menaquinone biosynthesis / ǂc by Jie Shi

Example of the same record with a title that contains two Greek characters transcribed as they appear along with a linked Latin version that may facilitate searching:

  066     ǂc (S
245 1 0 Structural and biochemical characterization of α/β-Hydrolase fold enzymes in biotin and menaquinone biosynthesis / ǂc by Jie Shi
245 1 0 Structural and biochemical characterization of [alpha]/[beta]-Hydrolase fold enzymes in biotin and menaquinone biosynthesis / ǂc by Jie Shi

For information on coding and display of non-Latin scripts, see field 066 and field 880. For information on specific Unicode characters, see Unicode Character Code Charts.

For consistency and predictability of bibliographic data, use the following table listing problematic characters with instructions on use, options, and preferred alternative characters.

Character code, name, etc.
Instructions
U+0000 through U+001F (control characters) Do not use
U+007C (vertical line) Do not use
U+00D7 (multiplication sign) Use either U+0078 (Latin small letter x) or U+00D7 (multiplication sign) to record dimensions
U+00DF (Latin small letter sharp s or Eszett) While not permitted in LC/NACO authority records, U+00DF (Latin small letter sharp s or Eszett) can be included in bibliographic records
U+02BB (modifier letter turned comma) Use in place of U+02BF (modifier letter left half ring) to represent the ayn character
U+02BC (modifier letter apostrophe) Use in place of U+02BE (modifier letter right half ring) to represent the alif character
U+02BE (modifier letter right half ring) Use U+02BC (modifier letter apostrophe) to represent the alif character
U+02BF (modifier letter left half ring) Use U+02BB (modifier letter turned comma) to represent the ayn character
U+2000 through U+200A (en quad, em quad, en space, em space, three-per-em space, four-per-em space, six-per-em space, figure space, punctuation space, thin space, and hair space) Use U+0020 (space)
U+200B (zero-width space) Do not use
U+200E (left-to-right mark) Do not use
U+2010 through U+2013 (hyphen, non-breaking hyphen, figure dash, and en dash) Use U+002D (hyphen-minus)
U+2014 (em dash) Use U+002D & U+002D (two hyphen-minuses)
U+2015 (horizontal bar) Use U+002D & U+002D (two hyphen-minuses)
U+2018 (left single quotation mark) Use U+0027 (apostrophe)
U+2019 (right single quotation mark) Use U+0027 (apostrophe)
U+201C (left double quotation mark) Use U+0022 (quotation mark)
U+201D (right double quotation mark) Use U+0022 (quotation mark)
U+2024 (one dot leader) Use U+002E (full stop)
U+2025 (two dot leader) Use U+002E & U+002E (two full stops)
U+2026 (horizontal ellipsis) Use U+002E & U+002E & U+002E (three full stops)
U+2028 through U+202F (format characters) Do not use
U+2032 (prime)
Use either U+02B9 (modifier letter prime or mjagkij znak) or U+2032 (prime) to record minutes within geographic coordinates
U+2033 (double prime)
Use either U+02BA (modifier letter double prime or tverdyj znak) or U+2033 (double prime) to record seconds within geographic coordinates
U+20AC (euro sign) While not permitted in LC/NACO authority records, U+20AC (euro sign) can be included in bibliographic records
U+FEFF (zero-width-no-break space) Do not use
U+FF01 through U+FFEE (fullwidth and halfwidth characters) Use corresponding ordinary width characters
U+FFFC through U+FFFD (replacement characters) Do not use
U+FFFE through U+FFFF (noncharacters) Do not use

For information on problematic characters in Uniform Resource Identifiers in subfield ǂu, see Control Subfields.

2.8  Punctuation

Introduction

Some bibliographic records in WorldCat include punctuation separating elements of the description while other bibliographic records omit punctuation separating elements of the description. When included, that separating punctuation is often in the form prescribed by the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD), but in other cases separating punctuation can be pre-ISBD.

Records with separating punctuation may need some punctuation suppressed in local system displays intended for the catalog user, while records without separating punctuation may need some punctuation supplied in local system displays intended for the catalog user.

Punctuation is not included in most formats for encoding bibliographic information outside of MARC 21, e.g., BIBFRAME, Dublin Core, ONIX, UNIMARC, etc. The use of punctuation in MARC 21 records is often prone to error, and it presents complexities in mapping data between MARC 21 and other formats. Because such mappings are likely to become routine in the future as bibliographic data is created and maintained in a variety of formats, a transition to a MARC 21 environment where most records omit punctuation would be beneficial.

The following examples for the same resource illustrate different cataloging and punctuation practices.

Example of pre-ISBD record with punctuation (including optional terminal periods):

Desc     blank character
040     XXX ǂb eng ǂc XXX
100 1   Mitchell, Margaret, ǂd 1900-1949.
245 1 0 Gone with the wind, ǂc by Margaret Mitchell.
260     New York, ǂb The Macmillan Company, ǂc 1937.
300     1087 p. ǂc 22 cm.

Example of pre-ISBD record with punctuation omitted except in the access point:

Desc     n
040     XXX ǂb eng ǂc XXX
100 1   Mitchell, Margaret, ǂd 1900-1949
245 1 0 Gone with the wind ǂc by Margaret Mitchell
260     New York ǂb The Macmillan Company ǂc 1937
300     1087 p. ǂc 22 cm

Example of AACR2 record with punctuation (including optional terminal periods):

Desc     a
040     XXX ǂb eng ǂc XXX
100 1   Mitchell, Margaret, ǂd 1900-1949.
245 1 0 Gone with the wind / ǂc by Margaret Mitchell.
260     New York : ǂb Macmillan Co., ǂc 1937.
300     1087 p. ; ǂc 22 cm.

Example of AACR2 record with punctuation omitted except in the access point:

Desc     c
040     XXX ǂb eng ǂe aacr/2 ǂc XXX
100 1   Mitchell, Margaret, ǂd 1900-1949
245 1 0 Gone with the wind ǂc by Margaret Mitchell
260     New York ǂb Macmillan Co. ǂc 1937
300     1087 p. ǂc 22 cm

Example of RDA record with punctuation (including optional terminal periods):

Desc     i
040     XXX ǂb eng ǂe rda ǂc XXX
100 1   Mitchell, Margaret, ǂd 1900-1949, ǂe author.
245 1 0 Gone with the wind / ǂc by Margaret Mitchell.
260     New York : ǂb The Macmillan Company, ǂc 1937.
300     1087 pages ; ǂc 22 cm

Example of RDA record with punctuation omitted except in the access point:

Desc     c
040     XXX ǂb eng ǂe rda ǂc XXX
100 1   Mitchell, Margaret, ǂd 1900-1949 ǂe author
245 1 0 Gone with the wind ǂc by Margaret Mitchell
260     New York ǂb The Macmillan Company ǂc 1937
300     1087 pages ǂc 22 cm

OCLC Policy

You may create records with or without punctuation separating elements of the description which coincide with subfield coding. If you are creating or authenticating PCC records, follow PCC punctuation guidelines.

Records with full punctuation

Records with full punctuation include all punctuation separating elements of the description. Use the following guidelines when creating records with full punctuation:

  • Supply punctuation between elements within a variable field per cataloging instructions, i.e., ISBD, RDA, AACR2, etc.
  • Supply punctuation at the end of the preceding subfield in cases where punctuation separates data that occur in separate subfields
  • Supply punctuation within the text of any subfield as needed per cataloging instructions used to create the record
  • Supply punctuation within authorized access points per the practice used in the related authority file
  • Do not supply brackets around preferred titles in access points
  • Do not supply parentheses around series statements
  • Do not supply a space-dash-space that occurs between variable fields, e.g., no space-dash-space at the end of field 245 preceding fields 250, 260, 264, etc.
  • Optionally, supply terminal periods following the displayed text in those fields where terminal periods are allowed
  • Code Desc with blank, a, or i for records with full punctuation whether terminal periods have been included or excluded

Records with no or minimal punctuation

Records with no punctuation exclude all punctuation separating elements of the description. Records with minimal punctuation generally exclude all punctuation separating elements of the description with the possible exception of authorized access points and/or certain problematic fields or subfields. Use the following guidelines when creating records with no or minimal punctuation:

  • Omit punctuation at the end of the preceding subfield in cases where punctuation separates data that occur in separate subfields (exceptions are noted on pages for individual fields)
  • Omit brackets around preferred titles in access points
  • Omit parentheses around qualifier subfields in fields other than access points, e.g., field 020 subfield ǂq
  • Omit parentheses around geographic coordinates
  • Omit parentheses around series statements
  • Omit a space-dash-space that occurs between variable fields, e.g., no space-dash-space at the end of field 245 preceding fields 250, 260, 264, etc.
  • Omit terminal periods following the displayed text unless the field ends with an abbreviation or initial
  • Supply punctuation within the text of any subfield as needed per cataloging instructions used to create the record
  • Supply punctuation within authorized access points per the practice used in the related authority file
  • Code Desc with c or n for records with no punctuation or minimal punctuation

Note: If the prescribed punctuation requires a space that would occur ahead of a subfield delimiter (e.g., space-colon-space), enter one space only rather than one in addition to the system-supplied space preceding all subfield delimiters.

Adding or removing punctuation

If you find an existing record that omits punctuation, do not add punctuation and replace the master record at this time.

If you find an existing record that includes punctuation, do not remove the punctuation and replace the master record at this time.

In either case, you may edit the record for local use as needed. When performing such a local edit, you should update Desc and field 040 subfield ǂe to reflect the inclusion or omission of punctuation.

Brackets

Practices related to the inclusion of brackets within a bibliographic record have varied over time. Older cataloging instructions would have catalogers record multiple adjacent elements to be bracketed within a single set of brackets. In the MARC record, a left bracket could occur in field 245 with the corresponding right bracket appearing in field 260. Current ISBD practice requires use of separate sets of brackets for different elements within a single ISBD area. You may change existing records to reflect current ISBD practice regarding use of brackets and replace the master record if your authorization allows you to do so.

This page last revised: August 6, 2019