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031  Musical Incipits Information (R)

Input Standards

1st Indicator  Undefined
blank character Undefined
2nd Indicator  Undefined
blank character Undefined
Subfields (R=Repeatable  NR=Nonrepeatable) Input Standards
‡a Number of work (NR) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡b Number of movement (NR) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡c Number of excerpt (NR) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡d Caption or heading (R) Optional/Optional
‡e Role (NR) Optional/Optional
‡g Clef (NR) Optional/Optional
‡m Voice/instrument (NR) Optional/Optional
‡n Key signature (NR) Optional/Optional
‡o Time signature (NR) Optional/Optional
‡p Musical notation (NR) Optional/Optional
‡q General note (R) Optional/Optional
‡r Key or mode (NR) Optional/Optional
‡s Coded validity note (R) Optional/Optional
‡t Text incipit (R) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡u Uniform Resource Identifier (R) Optional/Optional
‡y Link text (R) Optional/Optional
‡z Public note (R) Optional/Optional
‡2 System code (NR) Optional/Optional


Field 031 contains coded data representing the musical incipit for music using established notation schemes that employ ordinary ASCII symbols. It is primarily used to identify music manuscripts, but can be applied to any material containing music.

031     01 ‡b 01 ‡c 01 ‡m S ‡d Aria ‡t Rei d'impuniti eccessi ‡r e ‡g C-1 ‡o c ‡p '2BB4B8BB/4G8GxF4FF/4xA8AA4.At8B/4B ‡2 pe
[Coding for Aria, S Rei d'impuniti eccessi.]


Coding of the Scena ed aria Deh parlate che forse tacendo by Cimarosa:

031     01 ‡b 01 ‡c 01 ‡m vl1 ‡d Scena. Largo ‡g G-2 ‡n bBEA ‡o c ‡p 'C+8(3 {CDEFG};5)}8{GC}{,nB'G}4(-)/''2G+6{GnB'''C''E}6{DCAG} ‡2 pe
031     01 ‡b 01 ‡c 02 ‡m S ‡e Sara ‡d Scena. Largo ‡g C-1 ‡n bBEA ‡o c ‡t Chi per pieta mi dice il figlio mio che fa ‡p =5/4-''6C3CC6DEgF6CC8-6ED/ q8D4C8C'nB''4D-/2-/ ‡2 pe
031     01 ‡b 02 ‡c 01 ‡m vl1 ‡d Aria. Allegro ‡g G-2 ‡n bBEA ‡o c ‡p 6{'EDEF}{GABG}{EDEF}{GABG}/{''C'BAG}{FEDC},4B-/ ‡2 pe
031     01 ‡b 02 ‡c 01 ‡m S ‡d Sara ‡d Aria. Allegro ‡g C-1 ‡n bBEA ‡o c ‡t Deh parlate che forse tacendo ‡p 2 -/2-''4.F8D/gC'8BB4-2(-)/=2/''2E'G /''4.C'8A4F-/-Fq8B4A8GF/ ‡2 pe

DARMS coding and URL of MIDI source of J.S. Bach's Brandenburg Concerto Nr. 1 BWV 1046, 1st oboe part:

031     01 ‡b 01 ‡c 01 ‡m Ob. 1 ‡g G-2 ‡n bB ‡o c ‡p RE 9S(( 8)) 9(( 8 9 8)) 9E( 6) 7( 6S( 5)) / 4S(( 3 2 3))/ ‡u http://www.classicalmusicarchives. com/cgi-bin/n.cgi/prep/6/jsbbrc11.mid ‡2 da

1st indicator

Undefined. The 1st indicator position is undefined and contains a blank ( blank character ).

blank character


2nd Indicator

Undefined. The 2nd indicator position is undefined and contains a blank ( blank character ).

blank character



‡a Number of work

The code indicating the work to which the incipit applies. The code is based strictly on the order and presentation of works within the catalog record. If the record described one work, use 1.

031 2
[An incipit identifying the second sonata in a set of six.]
‡b Number of movement

The code indicating the movement within a work to which the incipit applies. The code is based strictly on the order and presentation of parts within the work. If the work has only one movement, use 1.

031 ‡b 3
[An incipit identifying the third movement of a symphony.]
‡c Number of excerpt

The code indicating the order of incipits within the movement defined in subfield ‡b . If there is only one incipit for a movement, use 1.

031 ‡c 1
031 ‡c 2
[The incipit for the instrumental introduction of an aria, followed by the incipit for the vocal part of the aria.]
‡d Caption or heading

Contains the caption or heading of the incipit.

031 ‡d Aria. Allegro
[The transcribed heading of the movement.]
‡e Role

The name of the character singing the incipit coded in subfield ‡p , when appropriate.

031 ‡e Sara
[Name of character singing the aria.]
‡g Clef

The clef of the incipit, as it appears in the source. Use code from the scheme specified in subfield ‡2.

031 ‡g F-4
[The incipit uses the bass clef (Plaine and Easie Code).]
‡m Voice/instrument

The name of the voice or instrument coded in subfield ‡p. Subfield ‡m is usually in coded form, derived from a controlled list maintained by the cataloging agency. Terms may also be taken from the item being cataloged if there is no appropriate code available.

031 ‡m S
[RISM code for soprano voice.]
‡n Key signature

The key signature of the incipit. The letter x indicates sharps and the letter b indicates flats, followed by capital letters to indicate affected pitches.

031 ‡n xFCG
[The incipit is in A major with three sharps.]
‡o Time signature

The time signature or mensuration sign of the incipit. The time signature may be transcribed as a symbol (for mensural notation use c or c., o or o.; or c for common time, c/ for alla breve) and/or a number ( 3, 2, c3, etc.) or a fraction ( 4/4, 12/8, etc.) or nd if marking is not present. Use of subfield ‡o is mandatory if subfield ‡p is present or subfield ‡2 contains either pe or da.

031 ‡o c
[The incipit is in common time.]
‡p Musical notation

The notation symbols of the code specified in subfield ‡2 to transcribe the first 10-12 notes of the selected staff.

031 ‡p '2B4B8BB/4G8GxF4FF/4xA8AA4.At8B/4B ‡2 pe
‡q General note

A free-text general note.

‡r Key or mode

The key or mode of the incipit, if applicable. The following codes from the Plaine and Easie Code may be used:

  • Capital letters A- G indicate major keys
  • Lowercase letters a- g indicate minor keys
  • Letter x indicates sharps
  • Letter b indicates flats
  • Numbers 1- 12 indicate Gregorian modes
031 ‡r e
[The incipit is in the key of E minor.]
‡s Coded validity note

A note in coded form on the validity of the information.

  • Question mark (?) indicates that there is a mistake in the incipit that has not been corrected
  • Plus sign (+) indicates that there is a mistake in the incipit that has been corrected
  • Letter t indicates that the incipit has been transcribed (e.g. from mensural notation)
  • Exclamation point (!) indicates that the incipit discrepancies have been commented on in subfield ‡q
031 ‡s ?
[There is a mistake in the incipit that has not been corrected.]
‡t Text incipit

The literary text (if present) as it appears on the source. It is usually the text corresponding to the music in the incipit. If the source has multiple texts (usually recorded to accommodate contrafactum texts), each corresponding text string is transcribed in a separate occurrence of subfield ‡t.

‡u Uniform Resource Identifier

The Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), for example a URL or URN, provides electronic access data in a standard syntax. Use for automated access to an electronic item using one of the Internet protocols. Repeat subfield if digital object has multiple identifiers. URIs usually recorded include audio files (such as .mid, .wav, .mp3), image files (.jpg, .tiff, .gif), or notational files (such as enigma or niff).

031 ‡u http://www.classicalmusicarchives.com/cgi-bin/n.cgi/prep/6/ jsbbrc11.mid
[A MIDI file of the incipit is located online.]

Substituting hexadecimal notation for diacritics and special characters in Uniform Resource Identifiers. When recording a URI in subfield ‡u, you may enter most of the spacing characters listed below as either characters or their hexidecimal equivalents. Consult the table below.

Note: Do not confuse the spacing characters listed below with their long-valid non-spacing counterparts. Use of the spacing characters will be limited almost exclusively to URLs.

Entry method Name Character Alternative entry (hex value)
Enter as character or hex value Spacing circumflex/circumflex accent ^ %5E
Spacing underscore/low line 1 _ %5F
Spacing grave/grave accent ` %60
Spacing tilde/tilde ~ %7E
Enter as hex value only vertical bar n/a %7C

1 Because the Spacing Underscore may cause problems with MARC output, users may prefer to continue entering it with the hexidecimal value %5F.

‡y Link text

The link text used for display in place of the URL in a subfield ‡u. When subfield ‡y is present, applications should use the contents of subfield ‡y as the link instead of the content of subfield ‡u when linking to the destination in subfield ‡u.

‡z Public note

A note relating to the electronic location of the source identified in the field. The note is written in a form that is adequate or intended for public display.

‡2 System code

Subfield ‡2 contains a two-character code that indicates the encoding system used to transcribe the musical notation in subfield ‡p. Use of subfield ‡2 is mandatory if subfield ‡p is present. Code from: Musical Incipit Scheme Source Codes (http://www.loc.gov/standards/sourcelist/musical-incipit.html. The following codes may be used.

  • Code pe indicates a Plaine and Easie Code
  • Code da indicates a DARMS Code
031 ‡p '2B4B8BB/4G8GxF4FF/4xA8AA4.At8B/4B ‡2 pe
[The incipit is encoded using the Plaine and Easie Code.]


For indexing and searching information, see Searching WorldCat Indexes, field 031.


Field 031 does not print.

This page last revised July 13, 2015