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Subjects--General Information

Record Type

BIB

Input Standards

Applicable Fields (R=Repeatable  NR=Nonrepeatable) Input Standards (Full/Minimal)
600 Subject Added Entry--Personal Name (R) Required if applicable/Optional
610 Subject Added Entry--Corporate Name (R) Required if applicable/Optional
611 Subject Added Entry--Meeting Name (R) Required if applicable/Optional
630 Subject Added Entry--Uniform Title (R) Required if applicable/Optional
647 Subject Added Entry--Named Event (R) Required if applicable/Optional
648 Subject Added Entry--Chronological Term (R) Required if applicable/Optional
650 Subject Added Entry--Topical Term (R) Required if applicable/Optional
651 Subject Added Entry--Geographic Name (R) Required if applicable/Optional
654 Subject Added Entry--Faceted Topical Terms (R) Optional/Optional
662 Subject Added Entry--Hierarchical Place Name (R) Optional/Optional
688 Subject Added Entry--Type of Entity Unspecified (R) Optional/Optional
690 Local Subject Added Entry--Topical Term (R) Optional/Optional
691 Local Subject Added Entry--Geographic Name (R) Optional/Optional
696 Local Subject Added Entry--Personal Name (R) Optional/Optional
697 Local Subject Added Entry--Corporate Name (R) Optional/Optional
698 Local Subject Added Entry--Meeting Name (R) Optional/Optional
699 Local Subject Added Entry--Uniform Title (R) Optional/Optional
1st Indicator  Undefined [647, 648, 651, 662, 688, 691]
blank character Undefined
1st Indicator  Level of subject [650, 654, 690]
blank character No information provided
0 No level specified
1 Primary
2 Secondary
2nd Indicator  Undefined [654, 662]
blank character Undefined
2nd Indicator  Thesaurus [647, 648, 650, 651, 688, 690, 691]
blank character No information provided [688, 690, 691]
0 Library of Congress Subject Headings
1 LC subject headings for children's literature
2 Medical Subject Headings
3 National Agricultural Library subject authority file
4 Source not specified
5 Canadian Subject Headings
6 Répertoire de vedettes-matière
7 Source specified in subfield ǂ2

For information regarding indicators for personal name subject access points, see Personal Names--General Information; for corporate name subject access points, see Corporate Names--General Information; for meeting subject access points, see Meeting Names--General Information; for preferred title subject access points, see Preferred Titles--General Information.

Subfields (R=Repeatable  NR=Nonrepeatable) Input Standards (Full/Minimal)
ǂa Named event (NR) [647] Mandatory/Mandatory
ǂa Chronological term (NR) [648] Mandatory/Mandatory
ǂa Topical term or geographic name as entry element (NR) [650, 690] Mandatory/Mandatory
ǂa Geographic name (NR) [651, 691] Mandatory/Mandatory
ǂa Focus term (R) [654] Required if applicable/Required if applicable
ǂa Country or larger entity (R) [662] Required if applicable/Required if applicable
ǂa Name, title, or term (NR) [688] Mandatory/Mandatory
ǂb Topical term following geographic name as entry element (NR) [650, 690] Required if applicable. Pre-AACR2 only/Required if applicable. Pre-AACR2 only
ǂb Non-focus term (R) [654] Required if applicable/Required if applicable
ǂb First-order political jurisdiction (NR) [662] Optional/Optional
ǂb Geographic element following geographic name (R) [691] Required if applicable/Required if applicable
ǂc Location of named event (R) [647] Required if applicable/Required if applicable
ǂc Location of an event (NR) [650, 690] Required if applicable/Required if applicable
ǂc Facet/hierarchy designation (R) [654] Mandatory/Mandatory
ǂc Intermediate political jurisdiction (R) [662] Optional/Optional
ǂd Date of named event (NR) [647] Required if applicable/Required if applicable
ǂd Active dates (NR) [650, 690] Required if applicable/Required if applicable
ǂd City (NR) [662] Required if applicable/Required if applicable
ǂe Relator term (R) [650, 651, 654, 662, 688, 690] Optional/Optional
ǂf City subsection (R) [662] Optional/Optional
ǂg Miscellaneous information (R) [647, 650, 651, 688, 690, 691] Required if applicable/Required if applicable
ǂg Other nonjurisdictional geographic region and feature (R) [662] Optional/Optional
ǂh Extraterrestrial area (R) [662] Optional/Optional
ǂv Form subdivision (R) [All except 662] Required if applicable/Required if applicable
ǂx General subdivision (R) [All except 654, 662] Required if applicable/Required if applicable
ǂy Chronological subdivision (R) [All except 662] Required if applicable/Required if applicable
ǂz Geographic subdivision (R) [All except 662] Required if applicable/Required if applicable
ǂ0 Authority record control number or standard number (R) [647, 648, 650, 651, 654, 662, 688] Optional/Optional
ǂ1 Real World Object URI (R) [All fields] Optional/Optional
ǂ2 Source of heading or term (NR) [All fields] Required if applicable/Required if applicable
ǂ3 Materials specified (NR) [647, 648, 650, 651, 654, 688, 690, 691] Optional/Optional
ǂ4 Relationship (R) [650, 651, 654, 662, 688] Optional/Optional
ǂ6 Linkage (NR) [All fields] System supplied/System supplied
ǂ8 Field link and sequence number (R) [All fields] Optional/Optional
ǂ9 Special entry (NR) [690, 691] Optional/Optional

Definition

A name, title, term, or phrase used as a subject access point.

Subject access points are assigned to a bibliographic record to provide access according to established subject cataloging principles and guidelines. Use to describe the content of the cataloged resource. Genre/form terms describe what a cataloged resource is, not what it is about.

Refer to Personal Names--General Information for information about personal name subject access points; refer to Corporate Names--General Information for information about corporate name subject access points; refer to Meeting Names--General Information for information about meeting name subject access points; refer to Preferred Titles--General Information for information about preferred title subject access points.

OCLC also makes available nonstandard MARC fields to use for additional subject access points not supported by cataloging rules. Enter information in fields 696, 697, 698, or 699 as you would in corresponding standard MARC fields. These fields do not remain in the WorldCat record. They are retained in the record displayed during the editing session, the exported record, and records delivered via other services.

For information about 6xx fields not covered on this page, refer to field 653 for information about uncontrolled index terms; refer to field 655 for information about genre/form index terms; refer to field 656 for information about occupation index terms; refer to field 657 for information about function index terms; refer to field 658 for information about curriculum objective index terms.

For information on punctuation, see the Punctuation section below.

Guidelines

Use the 6xx fields to provide subject access entries and terms. Most of the 6xx fields contain subject added entries or access terms based on the authority files or lists identified in the 2nd indicator or in subfield ǂ2.

If you are creating full-level records, add subject access points for resources that normally require subject access points. If you are inputting minimal-level records, optionally add subject access points. You are encouraged to enter at least one subject access point.

The Library of Congress has established guidelines for tagging certain corporate bodies and preferred titles. These guidelines and lists of problematic access points are occasionally updated and are available in MARC 21, Appendix E - Alphabetical List of Ambiguous Headings. Consult these guidelines when constructing these access points.

Special geographic guidelines:

  • The terms Developing countries and Developed countries are treated as geographic names under Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) and as topical terms under Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)

    651   0 Developing countries ǂx Economic conditions
    650   2 Developing countries ǂx economics
  • A geographic name based on a corporate name is treated as a geographic subdivision coded subfield ǂz when used as a subject subdivision

    610 2 0 European Free Trade Association
    651   0 European Free Trade Association countries
    650   0 Agriculture ǂx Economic aspects ǂz European Free Trade Association countries

For subfields ǂv, ǂx, ǂy, and ǂz use the following guidelines:

  • Treat the word States as a general subdivision coded subfield ǂx

    650   0 Finance, Public ǂz United States ǂx States
  • Chronological subdivisions qualify a subject in terms of time. You may use dates as a subdivision for this purpose. However, if you use dates to identify a specific occurrence of an event and do not qualify the subject in terms of time, treat the subdivision as a general subdivision coded subfield ǂx instead.

    610 1 0 United States. ǂb Army ǂx History ǂy Civil War, 1861-1865
    651   0 Oregon (Ill.) ǂx Census, 1990
  • Treat subdivisions that qualify a subject in terms of the time in which items were written as form subdivisions coded subfield ǂv. Chronological subdivisions coded subfield ǂy apply to the subject itself. In the following examples, the first entry applies to items written before 1800 about art of any period. The second entry applies to works 17th century art whenever they were written.

    650   0 Art ǂv Early works to 1800
    650   0 Art, Modern ǂy 17th century ǂx History
Abbreviations

Usual practice is to spell out all subject entries; however, you should not spell out the following subject entries:

  • Certain names used as parenthetical qualifiers following corporate names

    610 2 0 National Research Council (U.S.)
  • Abbreviations that are integral parts of corporate names

    610 2 0 U.S.-Ukraine Foundation
  • Certain jurisdictional names following geographic place names

    651   0 Houston (Tex.)

See the LC Subject Headings Manual for more information about abbreviations.

1st Indicator

The definition of the 1st indicator position is specific to each field.

647, 648, 651, 662, 688, 691

Undefined. The 1st indicator position is undefined and contains a blank.

 

blank character

Undefined
650, 654, 690

Level of subject. The level of the subject entry. Use the 1st indicator to distinguish primary and secondary descriptors.

 
blank character

No information provided. No information as to the level of the subject term is provided.

650   0 Architecture, Modern ǂy 19th century
 
0

No level specified. The level of the subject term could be determined, but is not specified.

 
1

Primary. A subject covers the main focus or subject content of the material.

650 1 2 Cardiovascular Physiology
650 1 7 Career Exploration ǂ2 ericd
650 1 7 Cooks ǂ2 ericd
 
2

Secondary. A subject covers a less important aspect of the content of the material.

650 2 2 Carbon Monoxide ǂx metabolism
650 2 7 Food Service ǂ2 ericd
650 2 7 Junior High Schools ǂ2 ericd
650 2 7 Simulation ǂ2 ericd

2nd Indicator

The definition of the 2nd indicator position is specific to each field.

654, 662

Undefined. The 2nd indicator position is undefined and contains a blank.

 

blank character

Undefined
647, 648, 650, 651, 688, 690, 691

Thesaurus. The thesaurus or subject heading system used in constructing the subject heading.

 

blank character

No information provided. No information is provided as to the thesaurus or subject heading system used. [688, 690, 691]

 
0

Library of Congress Subject Headings. The formulation of the subject added entry conforms to Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). This includes:

  • Topical headings (or topical headings and subdivisions) found in the LC subject authority file or in the latest edition of LCSH, including the latest supplements
  • Topical headings found in the LC subject authority file or in the latest edition of LCSH to which is added a free-floating or regular subdivision according to the rules stated in the Subject Headings Manual, particularly subdivisions listed in the pattern lists and geographic subdivisions
  • Topical headings not printed in LCSH in the past, but which have been used by LC and which are not likely to have changed (e.g., names of chemical compounds)
  • Certain music headings with qualifiers specifying instruments or vocal parts when the main heading has a general scope note printed in LCSH, with or without a general see also reference

Use of value 0 requires that the added entry is appropriate for use in LCSH.

 
1

LC subject headings for children's literature. The formulation of the subject added entry conforms to the "Children's and Young Adults' Cataloging Program" (CYAC) section of Library of Congress Subject Headings. Use of value 1 requires that the added entry is appropriate for use in the Children's and Young Adults' Cataloging Program.

 
2

Medical Subject Headings. The formulation of the subject added entry conforms to the National Library of Medicine (NLM) authority files. Use of value 2 requires that the added entry is appropriate for use in the NLM authority files.

 
3

National Agricultural Library subject authority file. The formulation of the subject added entry conforms to the National Agricultural Library (NAL) subject authority file. Use of value 3 requires that the added entry is appropriate for use in the NAL authority files.

 
4

Source not specified. The formulation of the subject added entry conforms to a controlled list, but the source cannot be specified by one of the thesaurus or subject heading systems covered by the other 2nd indicator values or by a code for a specific subject heading list in subfield ǂ2. Use field 653 to record terms that are not derived from controlled subject heading lists.

 
5

Canadian Subject Headings. The formulation of the subject added entry conforms to the Canadian Subject Headings. Use of value 5 requires that the added entry is appropriate for use in Canadian Subject Headings.

 
6

Répertoire de vedettes-matière. Subject access point conforms to the Répertoire de vedettes-matière that is maintained by the Bibliothèque de l'Université Laval and/or French name authority files maintained by libraries in Canada.

 
7

Source specified in subfield ǂ2. Subject headings or terms based on other subject authorities (i.e., on authorities other than those listed here). Identify the source in subfield ǂ2.

Subfields

 
ǂa Named event
[647]

Name of an event which cannot be regarded as a responsible agent. Enter parenthetical qualifying information associated with the term other than date and place in subfield ǂa.

647   7 Bunker Hill, Battle of ǂc (Boston, Massachusetts : ǂd 1775) ǂ2 fast ǂ0 (OCoLC)fst01710024
ǂa Chronological term
[648]

A chronological name used as an entry element for a topical term. Enter parenthetical qualifying information associated with the term also in subfield ǂa.

648   7 2000-2099 ǂ2 fast
ǂa Topical term or geographic name as entry element
[650, 690]

A topical subject or geographic name used as an entry element for a topical term. Enter parenthetical qualifying information associated with the term also in subfield ǂa.

650   0 Racetracks (Horse racing)
ǂa Geographic name
[651, 691]

A geographic name. Enter parenthetical qualifying information also in subfield ǂa. Enter parenthetical qualifying information associated with the term also in subfield ǂa.

651   0 Charleston (S.C.)
ǂa Focus term
[654]

A term which is considered the focus term. A focus term is the activity, being, object, or concept forming the basis of the index entry. Repeat subfield ǂa when there is more than one expression in the field.

654     ǂc m ǂb limestone ǂ2 aat
ǂa Country or larger entity
[662]

The name of a country or a larger political jurisdiction. Subfield ǂa also contains the names of geographical areas/entities such as continents or hemispheres at a country level or higher. Subfield ǂa may be repeated for hierarchies when multiple levels are given, retaining the order highest-to-lowest.

662     Canada ǂd Toronto
ǂa Name, title, or term
[688]

An unspecified name, title, or term.

688   7 Venus ǂ0 (DE-2581)TH000006586 ǂ2 gbd
ǂb Topical term following geographic name as entry element
[650, 690]

A topical term that is entered under a geographic name in subfield ǂa. Subfield ǂb is unlikely to be used in field 650.

ǂb Non-focus term
[654]

A term other than the focus term.

ǂb First-order political jurisdiction
[662]

The name of a first-order political jurisdiction or division and, depending on the country, including the names of states, provinces, territories, départements, etc.

662     France ǂb Doubs
ǂb Geographic element following geographic name
[691]

An additional geographic element following the name in subfield ǂa.

ǂc Location of named event
[647]

Place name or a name of an institution where a named event occurred. Multiple adjacent locations are contained in repeated subfields ǂc.

647   7 Coal Strike ǂc (Great Britain : ǂd 1984-1985) ǂ2 fast ǂ0 (OCoLC)fst00865219
ǂc Location of an event
[650, 690]

The location at which an event occurred.

ǂc Facet/hierarchy designation
[654]

A designation identifying the facet/hierarchy designation for each term found in subfields ǂa and ǂb. The designations and their associated facets/hierarchies are found in the thesaurus identified in subfield ǂ2. The designation in subfield ǂc always precedes the data to which it is associated.

ǂc Intermediate political jurisdiction
[662]

The name of a second-order or lower political jurisdiction or division, not including towns or cities, and, depending on the country, including the names of counties, islands, municipalities, prefectures, regions, etc. Subfield ǂc may be repeated for hierarchies when multiple levels are given, retaining the order highest-to-lowest.

662     ǂb Ontario ǂc Essex ǂd Windsor ǂ2 cgnbd
ǂd Date of named event
[647]

Date or time period related to a named event.

647   7 Hurricane Katrina ǂd (2005) ǂ2 fast ǂ0 (OCoLC)fst01755264
ǂd Active dates
[650, 690]

The time during which an event occurred.

690     Ardennes (France), Battle of the, ǂd 1944-1945
ǂd City
[662]

The name of a city or town.

662     Japan ǂg Kanto (region) ǂc Tokyo (metropolis) ǂd Tokyo (inhabited place) ǂf Shibuya ǂ2 tgn
ǂe Relator term
[650, 651, 654, 662, 688, 690]

A term that specifies the relationship between the topical heading and the described materials, e.g., subject.

690     Unicorns, ǂe depicted
ǂf City subsection
[662]

The name of a smaller unit within a populated place, e.g., neighborhoods, parks, or streets.

662     United States ǂb California ǂc Los Angeles (County) ǂd Los Angeles ǂf Little Tokyo ǂ2 tgn
ǂg Miscellaneous information
[647, 650, 651, 688, 690, 691]

Data element that is not more appropriately contained in another defined subfield.

651   7 Deutschland ǂg Bundesrepublik ǂ0 (DE-588)4011889-7 ǂ2 gnd
ǂg Other nonjurisdictional geographic region and feature
[662]

The name of a terrestrial nonjurisdictional geographic entity, e.g., rivers, lakes, islands, mountains, etc. Subfield ǂg may be repeated for hierarchies when multiple levels are given, retaining the order highest-to-lowest.

662     Africa ǂg Nile River ǂg Sixth Cataract ǂ2 tgn
ǂh Extraterrestrial area
[662]

The name of any extraterrestrial entity or space and includes solar systems, galaxies, star systems, planets, as well as geographic features of individual planets, etc. Subfield ǂh may be repeated for hierarchies when multiple levels are given, retaining the order highest-to-lowest.

662     ǂh Mars ǂh Valles Marineris ǂ2 [MARC code for Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature]
ǂv Form subdivision
[All except 662]

A specific kind or genre of material defined by the thesaurus being used. Use only when a form subject subdivision is added to a main term. Use subfield ǂv also for form terms when they function as indicated above. Use subfield ǂx if the terms function as general subdivisions. A form subdivision in subfield ǂv is generally the last subfield in the field. Repeat subfield ǂv if you use more than one form subdivision.

600 0 0 Constantius, ǂc Saint, Bishop of Perugia, ǂd -170 ǂv Bibliography ǂv Early works to 1800
610 2 0 Google (Firm) ǂv Fiction
611 2 0 Council of Constance ǂd (1414-1418 : ǂc Konstanz, Germany) ǂv Early works to 1800 ǂv Facsimiles
630 0 0 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (Motion picture) ǂv Computer games
650   0 Dentistry ǂv Juvenile films
650   7 Women tea-trade executives ǂz London, England ǂv Fiction ǂ2 henn
651   0 Salem (Mass.) ǂv Fiction
ǂx General subdivision
[All except 654, 662]

A subject subdivision that is not more appropriately contained in subfield ǂv, ǂy, or ǂz. Use subfield ǂx only when a general topical subdivision is added to a main term.

600 1 0 Shelley, Percy Bysshe, ǂd 1792-1822 ǂx Psychology ǂv Fiction
610 1 0 United States. ǂb Federal Emergency Management Agency ǂx Appropriations and expenditures ǂx Management
611 2 0 Olympic Games ǂn (24th : ǂd 1988 : ǂc Seoul, Korea) ǂx Music
630 0 0 Wizard of Oz (Motion picture : 1939) ǂx Production and direction ǂv Chronology
650   0 Racetracks (Horse racing) ǂz United States ǂx History
651   0 Aix-en-Provence (France) ǂx Social life and customs ǂv Early works to 1800
ǂy Chronological subdivision
[All except 662]

A subject subdivision that represents a period of time. Use only when a chronological subject subdivision is added to a main term.

600 1 0 Joyce, James, ǂd 1882-1941 ǂx Criticism and interpretation ǂx History ǂy 20th century
610 1 0 United States. ǂb Army. ǂb Cavalry ǂx History ǂy Civil War, 1861-1865 ǂv Maps
611 2 0 Derby (Horse race) ǂx History ǂy 21st century
630 0 0 Arabian nights ǂx History ǂy 20th century
650   0 Architecture, Modern ǂy 19th century
651   0 Greece ǂx History ǂy Geometric period, ca. 900-700 B.C.
ǂz Geographic subdivision
[All except 662]

A geographic subject subdivision. Use only when a geographic subject subdivision is added to a main term.

600 3 0 Dalton family ǂx Homes and haunts ǂz Kansas ǂz Meade
610 2 0 Suomen evankelis-luterilainen kirkko ǂz Finland ǂz Helsinki Region ǂv Case studies
611 2 0 Olympic Games ǂn (28th : ǂd 2004 : ǂc Athens, Greece) ǂx Press coverage ǂz Germany
630 0 0 Qurʼan ǂx Publication and distribution ǂz Saudi Arabia
650   0 Real property ǂz Mississippi ǂz Tippah County ǂv Maps
651   0 Japan ǂx Foreign relations ǂz Korea (South)
ǂ0 Authority record control number or standard number
[647, 648, 650, 651, 654, 662, 688]

For information about subfield ǂ0, see Control Subfields.

ǂ1 Real World Object URI
[All fields]

For information about subfield ǂ1, see Control Subfields.

ǂ2 Source of heading or term
[All fields]

A MARC code that identifies the source list from which the heading in a subject added entry was assigned. Use only when the 2nd indicator value is 7. See Subject Heading and Term Source Codes.

600 0 7 Christina, ǂc Queen of Sweden, ǂd 1626-1689 ǂ2 fast ǂ0 (OCoLC)fst01427275
610 1 7 España. ǂb Ejército ǂx Historia ǂ2 bidex
611 2 7 Congress of Vienna ǂd (1814-1815) ǂ2 sears
630 0 7 North American Free Trade Agreement ǂ2 henn
647   7 Eruption of Mount Saint Helens ǂc (Washington : ǂd 1980) ǂ2 fast ǂ0 (OCoLC)fst01353018
648   7 1609-1621 ǂ2 gtt
650   7 Acoustic measurement ǂ2 test
651   7 New York (N.Y.) ǂ2 ericd
654     ǂc v ǂa bibliographies ǂ2 aat
ǂ3 Materials specified
[647, 648, 650, 651, 654, 688, 690, 691]

For information about subfield ǂ3, see Control Subfields.

ǂ4 Relationship
[650, 651, 654, 662, 688]

For information about subfield ǂ4, see Control Subfields.

ǂ6 Linkage
[All fields]

Data that link fields when non-Latin script is entered. This subfield is system supplied and does not appear in OCLC online displays. Do not add subfield ǂ6. For more information about subfield ǂ6, see Control Subfields.

ǂ8 Field link and sequence number
[All fields]

For information about subfield ǂ8, see Control Subfields.

ǂ9 Special entry
[690, 691, 696, 697, 698, 699]

For information about subfield ǂ9, see Control Subfields.

Punctuation

For more information on punctuation, including OCLC policy, see section 2.8, Punctuation.

Indexing

For indexing and searching information, see Searching WorldCat Indexes, 6xx fields.

MARC 21

For more information, including content designator history, see MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data, 6xx.

This page last revised: August 28, 2020