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007  Physical Description Fixed Field (Sound Recording) (R)

       

Input Standards

Required if applicable/Optional
1st Indicator  Undefined
blank character Undefined
2nd Indicator  Undefined
blank character Undefined
Subfields (R=Repeatable  NR=Nonrepeatable) Input Standards 
‡a Category of material  (007/00)  (NR) Mandatory/Mandatory
‡b Specific material designation  (007/01)  (NR) Mandatory/Mandatory
‡d Speed  (007/03)  (NR) Mandatory/Mandatory
‡e Configuration of playback channels  (007/04)  (NR) Mandatory/Mandatory
‡f Groove width/groove pitch  (007/05)  (NR) Optional/Optional
‡g Dimensions  (007/06)  (NR) Mandatory/Mandatory
‡h Tape width  (007/07)  (NR) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡i Tape configuration  (007/08)  (NR) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡j Kind of disc, cylinder or tape  (007/09)  (NR) Optional/Optional
‡k Kind of material  (007/10)  (NR) Optional/Optional
‡l Kind of cutting  (007/11)  (NR) Optional/Optional
‡m Special playback characteristics  (007/12)  (NR) Optional/Optional
‡n Capture and storage techniques  (007/13)  (NR) Optional/Optional




Definition

 
All formats 

The physical characteristics of a sound recording. 007 is valid in all formats so you can code for the physical characteristics of the parts of an item such as accompanying material.

REC 

If you catalog several versions or variations in separate records, use field 007 in each record for that version or variation. If you catalog versions or variations in the same record, use separate 007 fields for each version or variation.

VIS  Use for kits (Type: o) that include a sound recording component.

Examples

 
Analog discs 
  • Specific material designation is audio disc (subfield ‡b, code d).
  • When a recording does not clearly indicate playback configuration, users may either use code u in subfield ‡e or infer a configuration from the recording itself:
    • MARC 21 recommends that "configuration of playback channels should be coded based on a clear indication of intended playback."
    • AACR2 LCRI 6.5C7 states, "When the number of sound channels is not stated explicitly, do not record any term."
    • RDA 3.16.8 says to "Record the configuration of playback channels if the information is readily ascertainable." You may "Use evidence presented by the resource itself (or on any accompanying material or container) as the basis for recording the configuration of playback channels. Take additional evidence from any source."
  • Enter the code in subfield ‡f, even if the information does not appear on the item:
    • The groove width for 33 1/3 rpm recordings is microgroove (subfield ‡f, code m).
    • The groove width for 78 rpm recordings is coarse (subfield ‡f, code s).
007     s ‡b d ‡d b ‡e u ‡f m ‡g e ‡h n ‡i n ‡j m ‡k p ‡l l ‡n e
300     1 audio disc ; ‡c 12 in.
344     analog ‡c 33 1/3 rpm ‡d microgroove ‡2 rda
007     s ‡b d ‡d d ‡e m ‡f s ‡g d ‡h n ‡i n ‡j m ‡k s ‡l l ‡n b
007     s ‡b d ‡d d ‡e m ‡f s ‡g e ‡h n ‡i n ‡j m ‡k s ‡l l ‡n b
300     6 audio discs (42 min.) ; ‡c 10 and 12 in.
344     analog ‡c 78 rpm ‡d coarse groove ‡g mono ‡2 rda
007     s ‡b d ‡d b ‡e s ‡f m ‡g e ‡h n ‡i n j m ‡k p ‡l l ‡n d
300     1 audio disc ; ‡c 12 in.
344     analog ‡c 33 1/3 rpm ‡d microgroove ‡g stereo ‡2 rda
500     Digital recording.
[Analog disc made from a digital original] 
Compact discs (CDs) 
  • Specific material designation is audio disc (subfield ‡b, code d).
  • The speed of a compact digital disc is 1.4 m per sec. (subfield ‡d, code f).
  • When a recording does not clearly indicate playback configuration, users may either use code u in subfield ‡e or infer a configuration from the recording itself:
    • MARC 21 recommends that "configuration of playback channels should be coded based on a clear indication of intended playback."
    • AACR2 LCRI 6.5C7 states, "When the number of sound channels is not stated explicitly, do not record any term."
    • RDA 3.16.8 says to "Record the configuration of playback channels if the information is readily ascertainable." You may "Use evidence presented by the resource itself (or on any accompanying material or container) as the basis for recording the configuration of playback channels. Take additional evidence from any source."
  • The groove width is not applicable (subfield ‡f, code n).
  • Dimension is 4 3/4 in. (subfield ‡g, code g).
  • Code special characteristics as digital recording (subfield ‡m, code e).
007     s ‡b d ‡d f ‡e s ‡f n ‡g g ‡h n ‡i n ‡k m ‡m e ‡n e
300     1 audio disc (70 min.) ; ‡c 4 3/4 in.
344     digital ‡c 1.4 m per sec. ‡g stereo ‡2 rda
347     audio file ‡b CD audio ‡2 rda
500     Analog recording.
[Digital disc made from an analog original] 
007     s ‡b d ‡d f ‡e u ‡f n ‡g g ‡h n ‡i n ‡k m ‡m e ‡n d
300     1 audio disc ; ‡c 4 3/4 in.
344     digital ‡c 1.4 m per sec. ‡2 rda
347     audio file ‡b CD audio ‡2 rda
Cartridges 
  • The standard speed for an audio cartridge is 3 3/4 ips (subfield ‡d, code m).
  • When a recording does not clearly indicate playback configuration, users may either use code u in subfield ‡e or infer a configuration from the recording itself:
    • MARC 21 recommends that "configuration of playback channels should be coded based on a clear indication of intended playback."
    • AACR2 LCRI 6.5C7 states, "When the number of sound channels is not stated explicitly, do not record any term."
    • RDA 3.16.8 says to "Record the configuration of playback channels if the information is readily ascertainable." You may "Use evidence presented by the resource itself (or on any accompanying material or container) as the basis for recording the configuration of playback channels. Take additional evidence from any source."
  • The groove width is not applicable (subfield ‡f, code n).
  • The size is 5 1/4 × 3 7/8 in. (subfield ‡g, code o).
  • The standard tape width is 1/4 in. (subfield ‡h, code m).
  • The number of tracks is 8 (subfield ‡i, code d).
  • Enter the appropriate codes in subfields ‡d, ‡g, ‡h, and ‡i, even if the information does not appear on the item.
007     s ‡b g ‡d m ‡e s ‡f n ‡g o ‡h m ‡i d ‡n e
300     1 audio cartridge
344     analog ‡c 3 3/4 ips ‡f 8 track ‡g stereo ‡2 rda
Cassettes 
  • The standard speed for an audiocassette is 1 7/8 ips (subfield ‡d, code l).
  • When a recording does not clearly indicate playback configuration, users may either use code u in subfield ‡e or infer a configuration from the recording itself:
    • MARC 21 recommends that "configuration of playback channels should be coded based on a clear indication of intended playback."
    • AACR2 LCRI 6.5C7 states, "When the number of sound channels is not stated explicitly, do not record any term."
    • RDA 3.16.8 says to "Record the configuration of playback channels if the information is readily ascertainable." You may "Use evidence presented by the resource itself (or on any accompanying material or container) as the basis for recording the configuration of playback channels. Take additional evidence from any source." The groove width is not applicable (subfield ‡f, code n).
  • The standard size is 3 7/8 × 2 1/2 in. (subfield ‡g, code j).
  • The standard tape width is 1/8 in. (subfield ‡h, code l).
  • The standard configuration for an audiocassette is 4 track. Enter code c in subfield ‡i unless the item specifically notes that it is 2 track.
  • Enter the appropriate codes in subfields ‡d, ‡g, and ‡h, even if the information does not appear on the item.
007     s ‡b s ‡d l ‡e u ‡f n ‡g j ‡h l ‡i c ‡n e
300     1 audiocassette
344     analog ‡c 1 7/8 ips ‡f 4 track ‡2 rda
007     s ‡b s ‡d l ‡e m ‡f n ‡g j ‡h l ‡i c ‡n e
300     1 audiocassette
344     analog ‡c 1 7/8 ips ‡f 4 track ‡g mono ‡2 rda
007     s ‡b s ‡d l ‡e m ‡f n ‡g j ‡h l ‡i b ‡n e
300     1 audiocassette
344     analog ‡c 1 7/8 ips ‡f 2 track ‡g mono ‡2 rda
007     s ‡b s ‡d l ‡e s ‡f n ‡g j ‡h l ‡i c ‡m c ‡n e
300     1 audiocassette
344     analog ‡c 1 7/8 ips ‡f 4 track ‡g stereo ‡h Dolby-B encoded ‡2 rda
Reel-to-reel tapes 
  • When a recording does not clearly indicate playback configuration, users may either use code u in subfield ‡e or infer a configuration from the recording itself:
    • MARC 21 recommends that "configuration of playback channels should be coded based on a clear indication of intended playback."
    • AACR2 LCRI 6.5C7 states, "When the number of sound channels is not stated explicitly, do not record any term."
    • RDA 3.16.8 says to "Record the configuration of playback channels if the information is readily ascertainable." You may "Use evidence presented by the resource itself (or on any accompanying material or container) as the basis for recording the configuration of playback channels. Take additional evidence from any source." The groove width is not applicable (subfield ‡f, code n).
  • The standard tape width for an audiotape reel is 1/4 in. (subfield ‡h, code m), even if the information does not appear on the item.
  • If the item does not specify the tape configuration (e.g., 4 track) or if the information is not in the physical description, enter code u in subfield ‡i.
007     s ‡b t ‡d o ‡e u ‡f n ‡g c ‡h m ‡i u ‡n e
300     1 audiotape reel ; ‡c 7 in.
344     analog ‡c 7 1/2 ips ‡2 rda
007     s ‡b t ‡d m ‡e m ‡f n ‡g b ‡h m ‡i b ‡n e
300     1 audiotape reel ; ‡c 5 in.
344     analog ‡c 3 3/4 ips ‡f 2 track ‡g mono ‡2 rda
007     s ‡b t ‡d o ‡e s ‡f n ‡g c ‡h m ‡i c ‡n e
300     1 audiotape reel ; ‡c 7 in.
344     analog ‡c 7 1/2 ips ‡f 4 track ‡g stereo ‡2 rda
007     s ‡b t ‡d p ‡e s ‡f n ‡g d ‡h m ‡i b ‡n e
300     1 audiotape reel ; ‡c 10 in.
344     analog ‡c 15 ips ‡f 2 track ‡g stereo ‡2 rda
Cylinder example 
007     s ‡b e ‡d h ‡e u ‡f s ‡g s ‡h n ‡i n ‡j i ‡k w ‡l h ‡n a
300     2 audio cylinders (8 min.) ; ‡c 2 3/4 x 4 in.
344     analog ‡c 120 rpm ‡d standard ‡2 rda
Roll example 
007     s ‡b q ‡d z ‡e z ‡f n ‡g n ‡h n ‡i n ‡n z
300     1 audio roll (12 min.)
500     For player organ.

1st Indicator

Undefined. The 1st indicator position is undefined and contains a blank (blank character).
 
blank character Undefined 

2nd Indicator

Undefined. The 2nd indicator position is undefined and contains a blank (blank character).
 
blank character Undefined 

Subfields

 
‡a Category of material   A one-character alphabetic code that indicates the category of material to which the item belongs is a sound recording.
s Sound recording. The item is a sound recording, which is defined as a cylinder, disc, film, tape, or wire on which sound vibrations have been registered so that the sound may be reproduced, and paper rolls on which the notes of a musical composition are represented by perforations in the paper and from which sound can be mechanically produced.
‡b Specific material designation   A one-character alphabetic code that describes the special class of material (usually the class of physical object) to which an item belongs (e.g., a cylinder).
d

Sound disc. Sound discs are thin circular objects that vary in diameter (e.g., 7 in., 10 in., 12 in.), on which sound waves, recorded as modulations or pulses, are incised or indented. Compact audio discs are typically 4 3/4 in. in diameter.

e Cylinder. Cylinders are cylindrical objects on which sound waves are incised or indented in a continuous circular groove. Mass-produced cylinders are made of plastic. Early cylinders were made of tinfoil or wax.
g Sound cartridge. Sound cartridges are containers holding a single sound tape, run as an endless loop.
i

Sound-track film. Sound-track film is a sound recording on film that is not intended to accompany visual images. Note: Code i is also to be used when it is not known if a sound recording on film is intended to accompany visual images.

q Roll. Roll of paper, for example, for player piano or player organ, on which the notes of a musical composition are represented by perforations in the paper and from which sound can be mechanically produced.
s Sound cassette. Sound cassette is a container holding a narrow, usually 1/8 inch, sound tape on two reels, one to feed (and rewind) and the other to take up the sound tape.
t Sound-tape reel. Sound-tape reel is usually designated an Open Reel or Reel-to-Reel. It is an audiotape-transport system with separate supply (feed) and take-up reels.
u Unspecified. The specific material designation for the sound recording is not specified.
w Wire recording. Wire recording is a round steel wire on which sound waves are magnetically recorded.
z Other. A sound recording for which none of the other codes is appropriate.
‡d Speed   The playback speed of the sound recording. Speed is associated with the kind of item; either disc (subfield ‡b is code d), cylinder (subfield ‡b is code e), or tape (subfield ‡b is code g, s, or t.)

Analog discs: The rotational speed of an analog sound disc is equal to the value of revolutions per minute (rpm) represented by the specific code. Certain speeds are usually associated with the diameter of the disc (e.g., 10 in. discs are played back at 78 rpm, 7 in. discs are played back at 45 rpm, 12 in. discs are played back at 33 1/3 rpm). Note that playback speed is not absolutely associated with any one analog disc size.

a 16 rpm. A standard speed for many analog audio discs for the blind and visually impaired, often referred to as "talking books," from about 1962 until about 1973.
b 33 1/3 rpm. The standard speed for most "long play" (LP) and some "extended play" (EP) analog audio discs of the "vinyl" era, from about 1948 to about 1990.
c 45 rpm. The standard speed for most "single" analog audio discs with large center holes, plus some "extended play" (EP) analog audio discs.
d 78 rpm. The standard speed for most analog audio discs of the "shellac" era, from about 1900 into the 1950s.
e 8 rpm. The standard speed for many analog audio discs for the blind and visually impaired, often referred to as "talking books," from the late 1960s until about 2001.  

Compact discs: The speed of a compact disc is calculated from the distance the playback mechanism covers on the surface of the disc in meters per second, and not the number of revolutions of the disc.

f 1.4 m per sec. The standard constant linear velocity at which an audio compact disc is scanned.

Cylinders: The speed of a cylinder is measured in revolutions per minute.

h 120 rpm. The standard speed of most cylinders issued between roughly 1889 and 1897.
i 160 rpm. The standard speed of most cylinders issued roughly from 1902 onwards.

Tapes: The speed of tapes is measured in inches per second (ips).

k 15/16 ips. The speed occurs, for example, on half-speed mini-cassettes used in small portable recorders.
l 1 7/8 ips. The speed occurs, for example, on standard cassettes.
m 3 3/4 ips. The speed occurs, for example, on consumer and nonprofessional reel-to-reel tapes, cartridges, and very unusual cassette tapes.
o 7 1/2 ips. The speed occurs, for example, in reel-to-reel, nonprofessional, and studio tapes.
p 15 ips. The speed occurs, for example, on reel-to-reel, studio tapes.
r 30 ips. The speed occurs, for example, on reel-to-reel, studio tapes, but is rarely used.

Others:

u Unknown. The speed of the sound recording is not known.
z Other. A sound recording speed for which none of the other codes is appropriate.
‡e Configuration of playback channels   The configuration of playback channels for a sound recording. Monaural, stereophonic, quadraphonic, and other configuration of playback channels should be coded based on a clear indication of intended playback or may be inferred from the recording itself. These codes do not refer to the configuration of channels orginally recorded, unless those channels are all intended to be available on playback.
m Monaural. The sound recording is configured to be played back on one channel.
q Quadraphonic. The sound recording is configured to be played back on four separate channels.
s Stereophonic. The sound recording is configured to be played back on two separate channels.
u Unknown. The configuration of playback channels is not known.
z Other. A configuration of playback channels for which none of the other codes is appropriate.
‡f Groove width/groove pitch   The width of the groove of the sound recording for discs or the pitch of the groove for cylinders.
m Microgroove/fine. Microgroove disc or a fine cylinder. Discs issued at 16, 33 1/3, and 45 rpm are usually issued as microgroove. Cylinders issued at 160 rpm (which have 200 grooves per inch) are usually issued as fine.
n Not applicable. The item does not contain grooves. Use for audio compact discs and tapes.
s Coarse/standard. Coarse or standard groove. Discs issued at 78 rpm are usually coarse. Cylinders issued at 120 rpm (which have 100 grooves per inch) are usually standard.
u Unknown. The groove width or pitch is not known.
z Other. A groove width or pitch for which none of the other codes is appropriate.
‡g Dimensions   The diameter of an open reel or disc, or the dimensions of a cassette, cartridge, or cylinder.

Reels or discs:

a 3 in. diameter 
b 5 in. diameter 
c 7 in. diameter 
d 10 in. diameter 
e 12 in. diameter 
f 16 in. diameter 
g 4 3/4 in. (12 cm) diameter 

Cassettes:

j 3 7/8 × 2 1/2 in. The height and width of the cassette are 3 7/8 x 2 1/2 in. Used for a standard compact cassette.

Cartridges:

o 5 1/4 × 3 7/8 in. The height and width of the cartridge are 5 1/4 x 3 7/8 in. Used for a standard audio cartridge.

Cylinders:

s 2 3/4 × 4 in. The dimensions of a cylinder are 2 3/4 in. (diameter) x 4 in. (length).

Others:

n Not applicable. The sound recording is not a reel, disc, cassette, cartridge, or cylinder.
u Unknown. The dimensions of the sound recording are not known.
z Other. A sound recoridng for which none of the other codes is appropriate.
‡h Tape width  

The width of the tape. Generally, cassette implies code l, cartridge implies code m, and tape reel implies code m.

 

l 1/8 in. Most cassettes use 1/8 inch tape.
m 1/4 in. Nonprofessional, consumer, and some professional reels, and most 8-track cartridges use 1/4 in. tape.
n Not applicable. The item is not a tape or does not include a tape. For example, code n is used if the item is a disc.
o 1/2 in. Recording studios customarily use 1/2 inch tape. Some 8-track cartridges have been issued in 1/2 in. tape.
p 1 in. Recording studios often use 1 inch tape. Some 8-track cartridges have been issued in 1 in. tape.
u Unknown. The tape width is not known.
z Other. A tape width for which none of the other codes is appropriate.

 

‡i Tape configuration   The number of tracks on a tape. Generally, cassette implies code c; cartridge implies code d. There is no standard number of tracks for tape reels.
a Full (1) track. The tape configuration is full or a single track.
b Half (2) track. Half track configuration is used to permit two tracks (channels) to be recorded on one tape. It is used with audio cassettes to permit monoaural recordings in two directions and with stereophonic recordings in one direction.
c Quarter (4) track. Quarter track configuration is used to permit four tracks (channels) to be recorded on one tape. It is used with standard audio cassettes to permit stereophonic recordings in two directions, and with quadraphonic recordings in one direction.
d Eight track. Eight track configuration is used with monaural, stereophonic, and quadraphonic recordings. Commercial eight track cartridges customarily include four pairs of stereophonic (two track) recordings.
e Twelve track. Twelve track configuration is used in professional recording studios to permit separate control of various tracks that are later mixed to produce a stereophonic or quadraphonic recording.
f Sixteen track. Sixteen track configuration is used in professional recording studios to permit separate control of various tracks that are later mixed to produce a stereophonic or quadraphonic recording.
n Not applicable. The item is not a tape or does not include a tape. For example, code n is used if the item is a disc.
u Unknown. The tape configuration is not known.
z Other. A tape configuration for which none of the other codes is appropriate.
‡j Kind of disc, cylinder, or tape   The type of disc, cylinder, or tape.
a Master tape. A final tape production master that is used to make a disc master or a tape duplication master. The master tape represents the final mix including special processing such as equalization, compression, phasing, and sound synthesis.
b Tape duplication master. A sound tape produced from the master tape. A tape duplication master is played on a tape reproducer to produce the sound tape for cassette, cartridge, or reel.
d Disc master (negative). A negative disc master that is used for the preparation of the mother from which more serviceable and longer lasting metal stampers can be made. In the early years of recording, discs were pressed from the metal-plated disc master or matrix. As commercial recording developed, the disc master was used, and continues to be used, for the preparation of the mother.
i Instantaneous (recorded on the spot). An original recording of a sound event or performance intended for direct reproduction without further processing. In the early years of recording, a single sound event was sometimes recorded simultaneously on several cylinders or discs. All of these recordings would be instantaneous.
m Mass-produced. Includes discs or tapes issued as limited pressing or limited issue for private distribution. Most commercial discs are mass-produced. Mass-produced discs are mechanically pressed for distribution, either commercially or privately; also, tapes reproduced from a tape duplication master for distribution either commercially or privately. Mass-produced discs, cylinders, and tapes usually include the name of the issuing company, the issue number, and bibliographic information on a printed label or on the container in which the disc, tape, or cylinder is packaged.
n Not applicable. The item is not a disc, cylinder, or tape.
r Mother (positive). An exact copy of the original disc recording pressed from the disc master. From the metal mother a negative metal stamper is made to press discs for distribution. Many stampers may be made from a single mother.
s Stamper (negative). A negative metal part, produced from the mother in an electroplating procedure, from which 500 to 750 discs may be pressed.
t Test pressing. Either one finished disc or one of a very limited pressing is made, designed to be examined aurally before a decision is made to proceed with a pressing.
u Unknown. The type of disc, cylinder, or tape is not known. Also used when it cannot be determined whether the item is instantaneous or mass-produced.
z Other. A disc, cylinder, or tape for which none of the other codes is appropriate.
‡k Kind of material   The kind of material used in the manufacture of sound recordings (both instantaneous and mass-produced).
a Lacquer coating. The item is lacquered coated, but the base material on which the lacquer is applied is not identified. To also identify the base, use codes g (Glass with lacquer), i (Aluminum with lacquer), or r (Paper with lacquer or ferrous oxide).
b Cellulose nitrate. The item is a cellulose nitrate base. This code may be used for items such as memovox discs.
c Acetate tape with ferrous oxide. The item is an acetate base with a ferrous oxide coating. Use for acetate tape and belts, such as magnabelts.
g Glass with lacquer. The item is a glass disc base with a lacquer coating.
i Aluminum with lacquer. The item is an aluminum disc base with a lacquer coating.
l Metal. The item is made entirely of metal. Includes the earliest cylinders, which were made of tinfoil, and aluminum transcription discs with no coating, as well as wire and metal tape.
m Plastic with metal. The item is made of plastic base with a metal coating. The metal part of such an item is often a thin layer applied to the plastic base. Includes compact audio discs (CDs).
p Plastic. The item is made entirely of plastic. Also includes mylar, polyester, and vinyl materials. Since the 1950s, commercial or mass-produced sound recordings on 16, 33 1/3, and 45 rpm discs, cassettes, and cartridges are made of plastic.
r Paper with lacquer or ferrous oxide. The item is a paper or cardboard disc, tape, or cylinder base with a lacquer or ferrous oxide coating.
s Shellac. The item is made entirely of shellac. Most commercial or mass-produced 78 rpm discs are made of shellac.
u Unknown. The kind of material used in the manufacture of the item is not known.
w Wax. The item is made entirely of wax. Most instantaneous cylinders were made of wax.
z Other. An item for which none of the other codes is appropriate.
‡l Kind of cutting   The kind of cutting of the grooves used on a disc. Primary use is to identify discs that contain only hill-and-dale information.
h Hill-and-dale cutting. The item is a vertical cutting with no lateral information intended for reproduction. All cylinders and some early discs have this cutting.
l

Lateral or combined cutting. The item is a cutting containing lateral information intended for reproduction. Such discs may also have vertical components intended for reproduction. Most contemporary discs (i.e., all quadraphonic discs and nearly all stereophonic discs) contain both vertical and laterial information and are coded l. Monographic discs are normally lateral only.

n Not applicable. The item is not a disc or a cylinder. Compact audio discs (CDs) are coded n as they are pitted rather than cut.
u Unknown. The kind of cutting is not known.
‡m Special playback characteristics  

The playback characteristics for sound recordings, including special equipment or equalization necessary for proper playback. This code is not used to indicate special processes used during recording unless those processes must be applied during playback. Codes should be used only if the item in hand includes a clear indication that special playback characteristics are required.

a NAB standard. The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) standard was used for the transcription of the recording and NAB playback equalization is required.
b CCIR standard. The Comité consultatif de la radiodiffusion (CCIR) standard was used for the transcription of the recording and CCIR playback equalization is required.
c Dolby-B encoded. The tape recording requires Dolby-B decoding playback equipment. Indicated on commercial recordings by the double D insignia (without indication of Dolby-C encoding). If Dolby is used on a tape recording without other indication, Dolby-B may be assumed. Despite the presence of the double-D or "Dolby" on a disc recording, this code is never used for commercial discs.
d dbx encoded. The item is dbx encoded. Used for disc or tape recordings that indicate on the label or package that dbx decoding is required. If descriptive material indicates that dbx was used during recording but that standard playback equipment may be used, do not use this code.
e Digital recording. The item requires digital playback equipment, such as Phillips/Sony Compact Discs or Sony PCM tape recordings. Do not use when there is an indication that digital equipment was used during recording, but that analog playback equipment may be used. Do not use for any commercial recordings prior to 1982. Do not use for any analog disc or tape recordings.
f Dolby-A encoded. The item requires Dolby-A playback equipment. It is used only for master tapes and other tape recordings where clear indication is given that the professional Dolby-A encoding was applied, and that Dolby-A decoding is required. Dolby-A encoding is never used for commercial tape or discs. (Instantaneous tape recordings labelled "Dolby" without other indication are normally Dolby-B, particularly cassette recordings, and should be coded c.)
g Dolby-C encoded. The item requires Dolby-C playback equipment. It is used for tape recordings where the label or packaging clearly indicates that Dolby-C is required. "Dolby" or the double-D symbol without specific explanation normally indicates Dolby-B, in which case code c should be used.
h CX encoded. The item requires CX encoded playback equipment. It is used for recordings where the symbol or mark CX appears. Such recordings may be labelled as compatible with standard playback equipment. No CX recordings will appear with pressing dates prior to 1981.
n Not applicable. The item does not have special playback characteristics.
u Unknown. The special playback characteristics are not known.
z Other. Playback characteristics for which none of the other codes is applicable.
‡n Capture and storage techniques   The technique by which the sound was originally captured and stored. Code re-releases of recordings for the original capture and storage technique, even though such re-releases may have been enhanced using another technique.
a Acoustical capture, direct storage. Usually a disc or cylinder recording, captured using an acoustical horn and diaphragm and stored directly on a master surface. Most acoustical recordings date from before 1927/29 when electrical recording equipment became available.
b Direct storage, not acoustical . The item is a disc recording captured using electrical equipment and stored directly on a master surface. All recordings made with microphones and other electrical equipment prior to the availability of magnetic recording techniques in the late 1940s used direct storage. Commercial recordings marked "direct to disc" or some equivalent phrase also use this technique.
d Digital storage. The item is a sound recording that was captured electrically and stored using digital techniques.
Such recordings are normally identified as "digitally recorded" or some similar phrase on the label or package. "Digital remaster" or "digital mixing" does not imply original digital storage. Note: Digital storage and digital playback should not be confused. The need for digital playback should be recorded in subfield ‡m (Special playback characteristics).
e Analog electrical storage. The item is a sound recording that was captured using electrical techniques and stored as modulations and pulses on a magnetic surface. Most recordings made from the late 1940s until the early 1980s are analog electrical recordings.
u Unknown. The capture and storage technique is not known.
z Other. A capture and storage technique for which none of the other codes is appropriate.

Printing

Field 007 does not print.

Last revised: March 3, 2014