Library Linked Data in the Cloud

OCLC's Experiments with New Models of Resource Description


Arlitsch, Kenning. 2014. “Being Irrelevant: How Library Data Interchange Standards Have Kept Us Off the Internet.” Journal of Library Administration 54 (7): 609–619. doi:10.1080/01930826.2014.964031.

Arlitsch, Kenning, and Patrick OBrien, eds. 2013. Improving the Visibility and Use of Digital Repositories through SEO: A LITA Guide. Chicago, Illinois, USA: American Library Association.

Arlitsch, Kenning, Patrick OBrien, Jason A. Clark, Scott W. H. Young, and Doralyn Rossmann. 2014. “Demonstrating Library Value at Network Scale: Leveraging the Semantic Web with New Knowledge Work.” Journal of Library Administration 54 (5): 413–425.

Baker, Thomas, Emmanuelle Bermès, Karen Coyle, Gordon Dunsire, Antoine Isaac, Peter Murray, Michael Panzer, et al. 2011. “Library Linked Data Incubator Final Report.” W3C Incubator Group Report, 25 October. World Wide Web Consortium.

Beckett, David, and Tim Berners-Lee. 2011. “Turtle: Terse RDF Triple Language.” W3C Team Submission, 28 March. World Wide Web Consortium.

Bell, Graham. 2012. “ONIX for E-Books.” In Part 2: Find That E-book – Or Not: How Metadata Matters. Understanding Critical Elements of E-books: Standards for Formatting and Metadata. NISO Webinar, 21 March.˙metadata/.

Bennett, Rick, Brian F. Lavoie, and Edward T. O’Neill. 2002. “The Concept of a Work in WorldCat: An Application of FRBR.” Library Collections, Acquisitions, and Technical Services 27 (1): 45–59. doi:10.1016/S1464-9055(02)00306-8.

Berners-Lee, Tim. 2001. “Issue 14: What is the Range of the HTTP Dereference Function?” Technical Architecture Group Issue Tracking, 25 March. World Wide Web Consortium.

_________. 2006. “Linked Data.” In Design Issues: Architectural and Philosophical Points, 27 July. World Wide Web Consortium.

_________. 2007. “Giant Global Graph.” In timbl’s blog, 21 November.

Berners-Lee, Tim, James Hendler, and Ora Lasilla. 2001. “The Semantic Web: A New Form of Web Content that is Meaningful to Computers Will Unleash a Revolution of New Possibilities.” Scientific American 284 (5): 28–37.

BF. 2015. “BIBFLOW: An IMLS Project of the UC Davis Library and Zepheira.”

BGN. 2014a. “BiblioGraph.”

_________. 2014b. “ Core Schema.”˙net˙rdfa.html.

BL. 2014. “Collection Metadata: Data Services.” West Yorkshire, United Kingdom: The British Library.

BNF. 2014. “About” Bibliothèque nationale de France. Last modified 26 November.

Brickley, Dan. 2010. “Easier in RDFa: Multiple Types and the Influence of Syntax on Semantics.” In danbr [blog], 2 November.

Brickley, Dan, and R.V. Guha. 2004. “RDF Vocabulary Description Language 1.0: RDF Schema.” W3C Recommendation, 10 February. World Wide Web Consortium.

_________. 2014. “RDF Schema 1.1.” W3C Recommendation, 25 February. World Wide Web Consortium.

Brickley, Dan, R.V. Guha, and Andrew Layman. 1998. “Resource Description Framework (RDF Schemas).” W3C Working Draft, 9 April. World Wide Web Consortium.

Brickley, Dan, and Libby Miller. 2014. “FOAF Vocabulary Specification 0.99.” Namespace Document – Paddington Edition, 14 January.

Chan, Lois Mai, and Edward T. O’Neill. 2010. FAST: Faceted Application of Subject Terminology : Principles and Applications. Santa Barbara, California, USA: Libraries Unlimited.

CIA. 2015. “The World Factbook.” The Central Intelligence Agency. Last modified 5 March.

Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, and Timothy J. Dickey. 2011. “Publisher Names in Bibliographic Data: An Experimental Authority File and a Prototype Application.” Library Resources and Technical Services 55 (4): 182–194.

Coyle, Karen. 2012. “Taking Library Data From Here to There.” NISO/DCMI Webinar, 22 Februray.˙public/download.php/8071/NISO˙DCMIwebinar22february2012PRINT.pdf.

Cyganiac, Richard, and Anja Jensch. 2014. “Linked Datasets as of August 2014.”

Dataversity. 2013. “Where is At: A Chat With Google’s R.V. Guha.” In Dataversity [blog], 13 November.˙b40607.

Dawson, Laura. 2012. “Metadata: Without You I’m Nothing (Metadata Quality and its Importance in E-Book Discovery).” In Part 1: Find That E-Book – Or Not: How Metadata Matters, Understanding Critical Elements of E-books: Standards for Formatting and Metadata. NISO Webinar, 21 March.˙metadata/.

DBpedia. 2015. “The DBpedia Knowledge Base.” University of Mannheim and Universitaet Leipzig. Last modified 8 January.

DCMI. 2007. “DCMI Abstract Model.” Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. Last modified 4 June.

DDC. 2014. “Dewey Decimal Classification / Linked Data.” OCLC.

de Melo, Gerard. 2014. “ Main Page.”

de Rosa, Cathy, Joanne Cantrell, Matthew Carlson, Peggy Gallagher, Janet Hawk, and Charlotte Sturtz. 2010. “Perceptions of Libraries: Context and Community.” A Report to the OCLC Membership.˙all.pdf.

Dean, Mike, Dan Connolly, Erik van Harmelen, James Hendler, Ian Horrocks, Deborah L. McGuinness, Peter F. Patel-Schneider, and Lynn Andrea Stein, eds. 2002. “OWL 2 Web Ontology Language 1.0 Reference.” W3C Working Draft, 29 July. World Wide Web Consortium.

Dean, Mike, and Guus Schreiber. 2004. “OWL Web Ontology Language Reference.” W3C Recommendation, 10 February. World Wide Web Consortium.

Dempsey, Lorcan, Eric Childress, Carol Jean Godby, Thomas B. Hickey, Andrew Houghton, Diane Vizine-Goetz, and Jeff Young. 2005. “Metadata Switch: Thinking about Some Metadata Management and Knowledge Organization Issues in the Changing Research and Learning Landscape.” In Escholarship: A LITA Guide, edited by Debra Shapiro, 55–79. Chicago, Illinois, USA: LITA Publications.

DNB. 2014. “IFLA Satellite Meeting: RDA Status and Perspectives.” Deutsche Nationalbibliotek, Franfurt am Main, Germany, 13 August.

_________. 2015. “Linked Data Service of the German National Library.” Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. Last modified 6 February.˙node.html.

Dong, Xin Luna, Evgeniy Gabrilovich, Geremy Heits, Wilko Horn, Ni Lao, Kevin Murphy, Shaohua Sun Thomas Strohmann, and Wei Zhang. 2014. “Knowledge Vault: A Web-Scale Approach to Probabilistic Knowledge Fusion.” In Proceedings of the 20th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. New York, New York, USA. Association of Computing Machinery.˜nlao/publication/2014.kdd.pdf.

DPLA. 2014. “Digital Public Library of America.”

Dunsire, Gordon, Diane Hillmann, Jon Phipps, and Karen Coyle. 2011. “A Reconsideration of Mapping in a Semantic World.” In DC-2011: Proceedings of the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications. The Hague, The Netherlands. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.

EBSCO. 2015. “EBSCO Information Services.”

EDItEUR. 2009. “ONIX and MARC 21.”

Europeana. 2014. “The Europeana Data Model for Cultural Heritage.”˙library/get˙file?uuid=ef2baffc-f078-41d9-be5f-76a3427f198f%5C&groupId=51031.

FAST. 2014a. “FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology) – Dataset.” OCLC Research.

_________. 2014b. “FAST Linked Data: FAST Authority File.” OCLC Experimental.

FIU. 2014. “FIU Catalogers’ Values.” Libraries - Florida International University.

Fons, Ted. 2013. “The Power of Shared Data.” OCLCVideo on YouTube, 5 December.

_________. 2015. “OCLC and LC Collaboration.” Presentation at the BIBFRAME Update Forum, Midwinter meeting of the American Library Association, Chicago, Illinois, USA, February 1.

Fons, Ted, Jeff Penka, and Richard Wallis. 2012. “OCLC’s Linked Data Initiative: Using to Make Library Data Relevant on the Web.” Information Standards Quarterly 24 (2/3): 29–33. doi:10.3789/isqv24n2-3.2012.05.

Ford, Kevin M. 2010. “Linked Data at the Library of Congress.” Presentation at SACO-At-Large, Annual Conference of the American Library Association, Washington, DC, USA, 27 June.

_________. 2012. “LC’s Bibliographic Framework Initiative and the Attractiveness of Linked Data.” Information Standards Quarterly, Special Issue: Linked Data in Libraries, Archives, and Museums 24 (2/3).˙public/download.php/9405/SP˙Ford˙LC˙isqv24no2-3.pdf.

Gatenby, Janifer. 2013. “Multilingual WorldCat.” Presentation at the IFLA World Library and Congress: 79th IFLA General Conference and Assembly, Singapore, 19 August.˙Multilingual%20Presentation%202013-08-19.pdf.

Gatenby, Janifer, Richard O. Greene, W. Michael Oskins, and Gail Thornburg. 2012. “GLIMIR: Manifestation and Content Clustering within WorldCat.” The Code4Lib Journal (17).

Genz, Marcella. 2002. “The Nature of A Work: Implications for the Organization of Knowledge by Richard P. Smiraglia.” Journal of Education for Library and Information Science 43 (1): 87–89.

GMET. 2014. “GEneral Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus.” Downloadable dataset.

GN. 2014. “GeoNames.”

Godby, Carol Jean. 2010. “From Records to Streams: Merging Library and Publisher Metadata.” In DC-2010: Proceedings of the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, edited by Diane I. Hillman and Michael Lauruhn, 138–149. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.

_________. 2013. “The Relationship between BIBFRAME and OCLC’s Linked-Data Model of Bibliographic Description: A Working Paper.”

Godby, Carol Jean, and Ray Denenberg. 2015. “Common Ground: Exploring Compatibilities between the Linked Data Models of the Library of Congress and OCLC.” OCLC Research.

Godby, Carol Jean, Patricia Hswe, Larry Jackson, Judith Klavans, Lev Ratinov, and Dan Roth. 2010. “Who’s Who in Your Digital Collection: Developing a Tool for Name Disambiguation and Identity Resolution.” Journal of the Chicago Colloquium on Digital Humanities and Computer Science 1 (2).

Google. 2012. “Introducing the Knowledge Graph: Things, Not Strings.” In Google Official Blog, 16 May.

_________. 2015. “Freebase: A Community-Curated Database of People, Places, and Things.”

Guha, R.V. 2014. “What a Long, Strange Trip It’s Been.” Presentation at the 2014 Semantic Technology and Business (SemTech) Conference, San Jose, California, USA, 20 August.

_________. 2015. “Proposal for Extension Mechanism.” In public-vocabs [listserv], 13 February. World Wide Web Consortium.

Guha, R.V., and Dan Brickley, eds. 2014. “WebSchemas.” Wiki, World Wide Web Consortium. Last modified 23 September.

Harper, Corey. 2006. “Encoding Library of Congress Subject Headings in SKOS: Authority Control for the Semantic Web.” In DC-2006: Metadata for Knowledge and Learning. Proceedings of the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications. Manzanillo, Comila, Mexico. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.

Hearst, Marti A. 1999. “Untangling Text Data Mining.” In Proceedings of the 37th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 3–10. College Park, Maryland, USA. doi:10.3115/1034678.1034679.

Heath, Tom, and Christian Bizer. 2011. Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. 1–136. Synthesis Lectures on the Semantic Web: Theory and Technology, 1:1. Morgan & Claypool. doi:10.2200/S00334ED1V01Y201102WBE001.

Hepp, Martin. 2014. “GoodRelations: The Web Vocabulary for E-Commerce.”

Herman, Ivan, Ben Adida, and Manu Sporny, eds. 2013. “RDFa 1.1 Primer - Second Edition: Rich Structured Data for Markup of Web Documents.” W3C Working Group Note 22. World Wide Web Consortium.

Hickey, Thomas B. 2009. “The Virtual International Authority File.” Presentation at the 25th Anniversary Authority Control Interest Group (ACIG) Program, Annual Conference of the American Library Association, Anaheim, California, USA, 12 July.

_________. 2013. “Cooperative Authority Control: The Virtual International Authority File (VIAF).” NISO/DCMI Webinar, 4 December.

Hickey, Thomas B., Edward T. O’Neill, and Jenny Toves. 2002. “Experiments with the IFLA Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records.” D-Lib Magazine 8 (9).

Hickey, Thomas B., and Jenny Toves. 2009. “FRBR Work-Set Algorithm Version 2.0.” OCLC Research.

Hillmann, Diane, Karen Coyle, Jon Phipps, and Gordon Dunsire. 2002. “RDA Vocabularies: Process, Outcome, Use.” D-Lib Magazine 16 (1/2).

Hodson, Tim, Corine Deliot, Alan Danskin, Heather Rosie, and Jan Ashton. 2012. “British Library Data Model – Book, V.1.” West Yorkshire, United Kingdom: The British Library, 4 August.

IFLA. 2014. “FRBR Review Group: Frequently Asked Questions.”

IFLA-SG. 1998. Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final Report. Technical report. IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records. UBCIM Publications-New Series. Vol. 19. Muenchen, Germany.

Illien, Gildas. 2013. “Interview with Gildas Illien, Director, Bibliographic and Digital Information Department, Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF).” International Standards Quarterly 25 (4): 22–29. doi:10.3789/isqv25no4.2013.05.

IMLS. 2015. “Institute of Museum and Library Services.”

Isaac, Antoine, Lourens van der Meij, Stefan Schlobach, and Shenghui Wang. 2007. “An Empirical Study of Instance-Based Ontology Matching.” In Proceedings of the 6th International Semantic Web Conference and 2nd Asian Semantic Web Conference, 253–266. Busan, Korea. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-76298-0˙19.

Isaac, Antoine, William Waites, Jeff Young, and Marcia Zeng. 2011. “Library Linked Data Incubator Group: Datasets, Value Vocabularies, and Metadata Element Sets.” W3C Incubator Group Report, 25 October. World Wide Web Consortium.

ISNI. 2014. “ISNI Registration Agencies.” International Standard Name Identifier.

Klein, Maximilian. 2013. “The Ropebridges: Authority Control in Wikidata.” In [blog], 9 May. OCLC Research.

Klein, Maximilian, and Alex Kyrios. 2013. “VIAFbot and the Integration of Library Data on Wikipedia.” The Code4Lib Journal (22).

Klyne, Graham, and Jeremy J. Carroll. 2004. “Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract Syntax.” W3C Recommendation, 10 February. World Wide Web Consortium. Last modified 25 February.

Koopman, Rob, and Shenghui Wang. 2014. “Where Should I Publish? Detecting Journal Similarity Based on What Has Been Published There.” In Proceedings of Digital Libraries 2014, 483–484. London, United Kingdom. Association for Computing Machinery.

Kroeger, Angela. 2013. “The Road to BIBFRAME: The Evolution of the Idea of Bibliographic Transition into a Post-MARC Future.” Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 51 (8): 873–890. doi:10.1080/01639374.2013.823584.

Landry, Patrice. 2009. “Multilingualism and Subject Heading Languages: How the MACS Project Will be Providing Multilingual Subject Access in Europe.” Catalogue & Index (157): 9–11.

LC. 2000. “MARC21 Format for Holdings Data. 2000 Edition.” Network Development and MARC Standards Office. Library of Congress.

_________. 2008a. “MARC to Dublin Core Crosswalk.” Development and MARC Standards Office. Library of Congress.

_________. 2008b. “On the Record: Report of the Library of Congress Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control.” Library of Congress. Last modified 9 January.

_________. 2012. “MADS RDF Primer.” Library of Congress. Last modified 10 May.

_________. 2014a. “240 - Uniform Title (NR).” In MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data. 1999 Edition. Network Development and MARC Standards Office. Library of Congress.

_________. 2014b. “BIBFRAME: Bibliographic Framework Initiative.” Library of Congress.

_________. 2014c. “BIBFRAME Model and Vocabulary.” Library of Congress.

_________. 2014d. “MARC 21 Format for Authority Data. 1999 Edition.” Network Development and MARC Standards Office. Library of Congress. Last modified 20 October.

_________. 2014e. “MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data. 1999 Edition.” Network Development and MARC Standards Office. Library of Congress.

_________. 2014f. “Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS): MARC 21 to MODS 3.5 Mapping.” Library of Congress. Revised October 2014.

_________. 2015. “BIBFRAME Implementation Testbed.” Library of Congress.

LD4L. 2015a. “Breakout: Entity Resolution(Strings to Things).” LD4L Workshop, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, USA, 23 February.

_________. 2015b. “Linked Data for Libraries (LD4L).” DuraSpace wiki. Last modified 6 February.

Lenant, Douglas, and R.V. Guha. 1989. Building Large Knowledge-Based Systems: Representation and Inference in the Cyc Project. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Addison Wesley-Longman Publishing Co.

MB. 2015. “MusicBrainz.” MetaBrainz Foundation. Last modified 23 February.

McCallum, Sally. 2015. “BIBFRAME Update.” Presentation at the OCLC Collective Insight series Library Data [R]evolution: Applying Linked Data Concepts, Palo Alto, California, USA, 25 February. OCLCVideo on YouTube.

Miles, Alistair, and Sean Bechhofer. 2009a. “SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System eXtension for Labels: (SKOS-XL) Namespace Document - HTML Variant.” 18th August 2009 Recommendation Edition. World Wide Web Consortium.

_________. 2009b. “SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System: Reference.” W3C Recommendation, 18 August. World Wide Web Consortium.

_________. 2009c. “SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System: The SKOS: Concept Class.” SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System Reference. W3C Recommendation, 18 August. World Wide Web Consortium.

Miller, Eric. 2014. “Libhub: Leading, Learning, and Linking.” Zepheira.

Miller, Eric, and Bob Schloss, eds. 1997. “Resource Description Framework (RDF) Model and Syntax.” Version 1, 2 October. World Wide Web Consortium.

Mitchell, Joan, and Michael Panzer. 2013. “Dewey Linked Data: Making Connections with Old Friends and New Acquaintances.” Italian Journal of Library and Information Science 4 (1): 177–199.

Mixter, Jeffrey K., and Eric Childress. 2013. “FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology) Users: Summary and Case Studies.” OCLC Research.

Mixter, Jeffrey K., Patrick OBrien, and Kenning Arlitsch. 2014. “Describing Theses and Dissertations Using” In DC-2014: Proceedings of the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications. Austin, Texas, USA. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.

Nelson, Theodor H. 1974. Computer Lib: You Can and Must Understand Computers Now. Chicago, Illinois, USA: Nelson.

OCLC. 1998. “xISBN Bookmarklet and Library Lookup service (V2).” OCLC WorldCat Service.

_________. 2011a. “FAST Converter: Convert LCSH Subject Headings to FAST Subject Headings.” OCLC Experimental, a project of OCLC Research. Last modified 5 May.

_________. 2011b. “OCLC Releases FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology) as Linked Data.” OCLC news release, 14 December.

_________. 2012. “OCLC Adds Linked Data to” OCLC news release, 20 June.

_________. 2014a. “2014 Annual Report to VIAF Council.”

_________. 2014b. “Linked Data Survey.” Excel spreadsheet, OCLC Research.

_________. 2014c. “The WorldCat Digital Collection Gateway.”

OMR. 2014. “Open Metadata Registry: Supporting Metadata Interoperability.” Open Metadata Registry.

O’Neill, Edward T. 2002. “FRBR: Application of the Entity-Relationship Model to Humphry Clinker.” Library Resources & Technical Services 46 (4): 150–159.

_________. 2014. “FAST: Subject Headings for the Semantic Web.” Presentation at the Midwinter Meeting of the American Library Association, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 28 January.

ORCID. 2015. “ORCID: Connecting Research and Researchers.” Last modified 27 January.

Panzer, Michael. 2008. “DDC, SKOS, and Linked Data on the Web.” Presentation at the OCLC/ISKO-NA Preconference, Montreal, Canada, 5 August.

_________. 2012. “From Strings to Things: Cataloging & Linked Data.” Presentation at the RBMS (Rare Books and Manuscripts) preconference “Futures.” San Diego, California, USA, 21 June.

Panzer, Michael, and Marcia Zeng. 2009. “Modeling Classification Systems in SKOS: Some Challenges and Best-Practice Recommendations.” In DC-2009: Proceedings of the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications. Seoul, South Korea. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.

Pattuelli, M. Cristina, Matt Miller, Leanora Lange, Sean Fitzell, and Carolyn Li Madeo. 2013. “Crafting Linked Open Data for Cultural Heritage: Mapping and Curation Tools for the Linked Jazz Project.” The Code4Lib Journal (21).

PSU. 2014. “CiteSeer.” College of Information Sciences and Technology, Pennsylvania State University.;jsessionid=CF5ED1EE927E84F4FC08BEE4FB3C01EC.

PTO. 2015. “The Product Types Ontology: High-Precision Identifiers for Product Types Based on Wikipedia.” Product Types Ontology. Last modified 2 February.

PU. 2013. “WordNet: a Lexical Database for English.” Last modified 26 August. Princeton University.

Raman, T.V., ed. 2006. “On Linking Alternative Representations to Enable Discovery and Publishing.” TAG Finding, 1 November. World Wide Web Consortium.

RDA. 2010. “RDA Toolkit: Resource Description and Access.”

Rekkavik, Asgeir. 2014. “RDF Linked Data Cataloguing at Oslo Public Library.” SCATnews: Newsletter of the Standing Committee of the IFLA Cataloguing Section 41:13–16.

Ridge, Mia. 2012. “From ‘Strings to Things’.” Keynote presentation at the LODLAM Melbourne workshop, Melbourne, Australia, 17 April.

Ronallo, Jason. 2012. “HTML 5 Microdata and” The Code4lib Journal (16).

_________. 2013. “ Documentation Should Show Multiple Inheritance Chains When Multiple Parents for Type.” In public-vocabs [listserv], 26 January. World Wide Web Consortium.

Sauermann, Leo, and Richard Cyganiac. 2007. “Cool URIs for the Semantic Web.” W3C Interest Group Note, 3 December. World Wide Web Consortium.

Schema. 2012. “ Core Schema.”˙org˙rdfa.html.

Schema Bib Extend. 2014a. “Collection.” W3C Community and Business Groups. World Wide Web Consortium.

_________. 2014b. “Holdings via Offer.” W3C Community and Business Groups. World Wide Web Consortium.˙via˙Offer.

_________. 2014c. “Recipes and Guidelines.” W3C Community and Business Groups. World Wide Web Consortium.˙and˙Guidelines.

_________. 2014d. “Schema Bib Extend Community Group.” W3C Community and Business Groups. World Wide Web Consortium. 2014a. “Thing–>Product.”

_________. 2014b. “Thing–>Product–>IndividualProduct.”

_________. 2014c. “Thing–>Property–>workExample.”

Scott, Dan. 2014. “RDFa +” Preconference workshop at the Annual Meeting of the American Library Association, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 27 June.˙preconference/.

Shvaiko, Pavel, and Jerome Euzenat. 2013. “Ontology Matching: State of the Art and Future Challenges.” IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 25 (1): 158–176. doi:10.1109/TKDE.2011.253.

Simon, Agnes, Romain Wenz, Vincent Michel, and Adrien Mascio. 2013. “Publishing Bibliographic Records on the Web of Data: Opportunities for the BnF (French National Library).” In The Semantic Web: Semantics and Big Data, edited by Philipp Cimiano, Oscar Corcho, Valentina Presutti, Laura Hollink, and Sebastian Rudolph, 7882:563–577. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Germany: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-38288-8˙38.

Smiralgia, Richard P., ed. 2001. The Nature of a Work: Implications for the Organization of Knowledge. Lanham, Maryland, USA: Scarecrow Press.

Smith-Yoshimura, Karen. 2013. “First Scholars’ Contributions to VIAF: Greek!” In [blog], 25 November. OCLC Research.

_________. 2014a. “Linked Data Survey Results 3: Why and What Institutions are Consuming.” In [blog], 1 September. OCLC Research.

_________. 2014b. “Multilingual Bibliographic Structure.” OCLC Research Update at ALA Annual Conference.

Smith-Yoshimura, Karen, Micah Altman, Michael Conlon, Ana Lupe Cristan, Laura Dawson, Joanne Dunham, Thom Hickey, et al. 2014. “Registering Researchers in Authority Files.” OCLC Research.

Smith-Yoshimura, Karen, Catherine Argus, Timothy J. Dickey, Chew Chiat Naun, Lisa Rowlinson de Ortiz, and Hugh Taylor. 2010. “Implications of MARC Tag Usage on Library Metadata Practices.” Report produced by OCLC Research in support of the RLG Partnership.

Smith-Yoshimura, Karen, and David Michelson. 2013. “Irreconciliable Differences? Name Authority Control & Humanities Scholarship.” In [blog], 27 March. OCLC Research.

Stolz, Alex. 2014. “RDF Translator, Powered by RDFLib 4.0.1.” Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen.

Summers, Ed, Antoine Isaac, Clay Redding, and Dan Krech. 2008. “LCSH, SKOS, and Linked Data.” In DC-2008: Proceedings of the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, 25–33. Berlin, Germany. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.

TEL. 2014a. “The BNF Transforms the Visibility of its Resources with Linked Open Data.” In The European Library. Connecting Knowledge. About Us / News Item, 14 May. The European Library.

_________. 2014b. “The European Library.”

Tillett, Barbara. 2003. “The FRBR Model (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records).” Presentation to the ALCTS Institute on Metadata and AACR2, San Jose, California, USA, 4-5 April.

_________. 2004. “What is FRBR? A Conceptual Model Model for the Bibliographic Universe.” Library of Congress Cataloging Distribution Service.

URI-PIG. 2001. “URIs, URLs, and URNs: Clarifications and Recommendations 1.” W3C Note, 21 September. URI Planning Interest Group. World Wide Web Consortium and Internet Engineering Task Force.

VIAF. 2014. “The Virtual International Authority File.”

Vizine-Goetz, Diane. 2013. “WorldCat Cookbook Finder: Explore Cookbooks and More from Libraries around the World.” OCLC Research.

_________. 2014a. “Classify: An Experimental Classification Web Service.” OCLC Research.

_________. 2014b. “Kindred Works: A Demonstration Interface for an Experimental WorldCat Recommender Service.” OCLC Research.

W3C-OWL. 2012. “OWL 2 Web Ontology Language: Document Overview (Second Edition).” W3C Recommendation, 11 December. W3C OWL Working Group. World Wide Web Consortium.

Wallis, Richard. 2013. “What the Web Wants.” OCLCVideo on YouTube, 6 December.

_________. 2014a. “A Step for – A Leap for Bib Data on the Web.” In Data Liberate [blog], 2 September.

_________. 2014b. “WorldCat Works Linked Data – Some Answers to Early Questions.” In Data Liberate [blog], 4 March.

Wallis, Richard, and Dan Cohen. 2014. “ Support for Bibiographic Relationships and Periodicals.” In Schema blog: Official blog for, 2 September.˙2.html.

Wang, Shenghui, Gwenn Englebienne, and Stefan Schlobach. 2008. “Learning Concept Mappings from Instance Similarity.” In Proceedings of the 7th International Semantic Web Conference, 339–355. Karlsruhe, Germany. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-88564-1˙22.

Wang, Shenghui, Antoine Isaac, Valentine Charles, Rob Koopman, Anti Agoropoulou, and Titia van der Werf. 2013. “Hierarchical Structuring of Cultural Heritage Objects within Large Aggregations.” In Proceedings of 17th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries, 247–259. Valletta, Malta. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-40501-3˙25.

Wang, Shenghui, Antoine Isaac, Stefan Schlobach, Lourens van der Meij, and Balthasar A. C. Schopman. 2012. “Instance-based Semantic Interoperability in the Cultural Heritage.” Semantic Web 3 (1): 45–64. doi:10.3233/SW-2012-0045.

Wang, Shenghui, Antoine Isaac, Balthasar A. C. Schopman, Stefan Schlobach, and Lourens van der Meij. 2009. “Matching Multi-lingual Subject Vocabularies.” In Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Digital Libraries, 125–137. Corfu, Greece. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-04346-8˙14.

Weibel, Stuart, Jean Godby, Eric Miller, and Ron Daniel. 1995. “OCLC/NCSA Metadata Workshop Report.” Metadata Innovation. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.

Will, Leonard. 2001. “Costs of Vocabulary Mapping.” Presentation at High-level Thesaurus (HILT) workshop.

WWW. 1991. “World Wide Web.”

Yee, Martha M. 2009. “Can Bibliographic Data be Put Directly on the Semantic Web?” Boston College University Libraries.

Young, Jeff. 2011. “Changes to VIAF’s RDF.” In Outgoing [blog], 12 April.

Zeng, Marcia Lei, Maja Zumer, and Athena Salaba, eds. 2010. Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data (FRSAD): A Conceptual Model. Technical report. IFLA Working Group on the Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Records (FRSAR).

Zumer, Maja, Edward T. O’Neill, and Jeffrey K. Mixter. 2015. “FRBR Aggregates: Their Types and Frequency in LIbrary Collections.” Journal article submitted for publication.