Many researchers in the LIS community recognize the need to lower the barriers to the management of digital resources by implementing some measure of interoperability among metadata standards. They have proposed a wide range of solutions, including crosswalks, translation algorithms, metadata registries, and specialized data dictionaries. Yet despite some genuine advances, it is still difficult to identify the common elements in different metadata standards and put this information to use in systems that resolve differences between incompatible records.
The goal of the Metadata Schema Transformation project is to develop data models and software tools that ease the task of translating between metadata standards, bridging the gap between analysis and execution. Our work focuses on technical implementations of the crosswalk, the object that distinguishes metadata translation from more routine types of data and format conversion.
Crosswalks are typically presented as tables of equivalent elements in two standards, such as MARC 245 $a and Dublin Core Title or ONIX Contributor/PersonName and MARC 100 $a. Though the equivalences may be inexact, they represent an expert's judgment that the differences are immaterial to the successful operation of a software process that involves records encoded in the two standards.
Crosswalks are all too often implemented in an ad-hoc fashion when an application needs a particular conversion. Though this strategy is expedient in the short term, it eventually produces silos, duplicated work, and unpredictable results across different systems.
We avoid these problems by designing a self-contained crosswalk utility that can be called by any application that must translate metadata records. In our implementation, the translation logic is executed by a dedicated XML application called the Semantic Equivalence Expression Language, or Seel, a language specification and a corresponding interpreter that transcribes the information in a crosswalk into an executable format.
These components are packaged as The Crosswalk Web Service, which optimizes change management and dramatically reduces redundant effort.
In addition to the research results reported in our presentations and publications, the Crosswalk Web Service is now a production system that has been incorporated into the following OCLC products and services.
- OCLC Metadata Services for Publishers
- Digital Collection Gateway
- OCLC Connexion
- Grid Services
Our work focuses on the conversion of standards that describe bibliographic metadata. But the tools we have developed are generic and can be applied to metadata that is managed by other communities of practice.
System building and evaluation.
Since this project focuses on infrastructure improvements, it is intended to benefit software developers who work in library technical services departments and must manage collections of metadata.
- Create an instance of the Crosswalk Web Service that converts authorities metadata.
- Design and implement utilities that interact with the Crosswalk Web service to manage ephemeral process data and convert from one data encoding to another.
Research reports, articles and key presentations by project team
- 2012. A Crosswalk from ONIX Version 3.0 for Books to MARC 21.
Report: http://www.oclc.org/research/publications/library/2012/2012-04.pdf (.pdf: 666K/37 pp.).
Crosswalk: http://www.oclc.org/research/publications/library/2012/2012-04a.xls (crosswalk; .xls: 272K/18 sheets).
- 2012. A Crosswalk from ONIX Version 3.0 for Books to MARC 21, featuring Carol Jean Godby.
Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bkMkd7Rm_1A (2:26).
- 2010. Mapping Bibliographic Metadata (.pptx: 1.8MB/18 slides)
Presentation given at the OCLC Update, American Library Association 2010 Annual Conference, Washington, D.C. (USA)
A recording of this presentation is also available.
- 2010. Mapping ONIX to MARC.
Report: http://www.oclc.org/research/publications/library/2010/2010-14.pdf (.pdf: 190K/32 pp.).
Crosswalk: http://www.oclc.org/research/publications/library/2010/2010-14a.xls (.pdf: 180K/14 pp.).
- 2009. "The Crosswalk Web Service." Presentation given at A Symposium for Libraries and Publishers, Dublin, OH. http://www.oclc.org/publisher-symposium/summary/Godby_Crosswalk_webSvc.pdf.
- 2008. "Encoding Application Profiles in a Computational Model of the Crosswalk." Dublin Core-2008 conference, Berlin, Germany. http://dcpapers.dublincore.org/ojs/pubs/article/viewArticle/914.
- 2008. "Toward Element-level Interoperability in Bibliographic Metadata." Code4Lib Journal.
- 2006. Two Paths to Metadata Translation: An Overview. Presentation given at Code4Lib-2006, Portland, OR.
- 2004. "A Repository of Metadata Crosswalks." DLib Magazine. http://www.dlib.org/dlib/december04/godby/12godby.html.
- 2004. “What do Application Profiles Reveal about the Learning Object Metadata Standard?” Ariadne. http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue41/godby/.
- 2003. "Two Paths to Interoperable Metadata." Dublin Core-2003 conference, Seattle, WA.
Most recent updates: Page content: 2010-04-09 Prototype: 2008-07-22
Jay Stuler, Technical Intern (2000 - 2006)
The OCLC Crosswalk Web Service Demo is available.
The public demo calls an instance of the Crosswalk Web Service that resides outside OCLC’s firewall. It translates to and from the following formats:
Dublin Core, MARC-XML, MARC-2709, and MODS.
Users need to download a thin client containing the web service API. After following some simple instructions (listed on the download page), they will have a software module that can be incorporated into their own applications.