Sustainable Collection Services®

Weeding and deselection bibliography

Library weeding

Jump to a specific sub-topic: Case studies and projects | Discards: what to do with them? | Faculty investment | In the news | Opinion | Policies | Pre-2000 citations  | Questions of cost | Reference collections | Theory and practice

Library weeding—case studies and projects

Library weeding—discards: what to do with them?


Web resources

Vendor/Program websites

Library weeding—faculty investment

Library weeding—in the news

Library weeding—opinion

Library weeding—policies

Library weeding—pre-2000 citations

Library weeding—questions of cost

Library weeding—reference collections

Library weeding—theory and practice


Collaborative collection management

Jump to a specific sub-topic: Case studies and individual programs | Theory and practice

Case studies and individual programs

  • What should we do with all these books? A feasibility study on collaborative monograph solutions

    Woodward, H., & Henderson, H.
    Insights, 31, 4. 2018

    Following the success of the UKRR, the National Monographs Steering Committee commissioned Information Power Ltd (IPL) to explore potential solutions for the collaborative management of monographs in the UK. Desk research and interviews with existing collaborations worldwide showed that there were three potential models in use: distributed storage and shared collection, physical consolidation of print materials into a shared repository and shared or co-operative storage facility. Interviews with key stakeholders in the UK HE sector and an online survey established that there was an appetite for collaborative management. The key issues include funding, sustainability and business models; shared bibliographic data; collection analysis; governance, leadership and administration; duplicate materials policy; and storage and retrieval from storage. IPL recommended that a national membership organization be formed (UKRR-M) which would offer a national solution with physical consolidation of print materials into a shared repository collection with central administration.

  • EAST by Northeast

    Stearns, Susan
    Collaborative Librarianship: Vol. 8: Iss. 1, Article 4. 2016

    The Eastern Academic Scholars’ Trust (EAST) is currently completing a large-scale analysis of collections across 40 of the participating libraries. This analysis will provide insight into both uniqueness and overlap across the libraries’ holdings and will result in agreements by the libraries to retain circulating monographs in their local collections for an agreed upon time period and to make those materials available to researchers and scholars from other EAST libraries. In parallel to this collection analysis, EAST is implementing validation sampling across the libraries to better understand volume availability and condition and the role they may plan in retention decisions.

  • The Evolution of Collaborative Collection Development within a Library Consortium: Data Analysis Applied in a Cultural Context (book chapter)

    Osterman, Anne Charlotte and Genya O'Gara and Alison M. Armstrong
    Space and Organizational Considerations in Academic Library Partnerships and Collaborations. 2016

    This chapter details a collection analysis project carried out within the Virtual Library of Virginia (VIVA) consortium in 2013-2015. This project included an analysis of 12 member libraries' main stacks monographs – a total of just under six million volumes – and demonstrates the importance of relying on established cultural support as well as the challenges of cultural change involved in library collaboration. The project stands out from other similar collection analyses conducted by groups of libraries in its central focus on using the analysis to inform prospective, collaborative collection development.

  • Shared Print in Indiana

    Baich, Tina and Kirsten Leonard.
    IOLUG Spring 2015 Conference, Indianapolis, IN, June 12, 2015.

    In 2013, 36 Indiana academic libraries came together to take part in the ALI/PALNI Shared Print Project. By sharing their resources, the libraries were able to engage Sustainable Collection Services to analyze the circulating print monographs of each library individually and as a whole. This year’s keynote address will share background on the ALI/PALNI Shared Print Project, the results to date and plans for the future.

  • Major Maine Libraries, Public and Academic, Collaborate on Print Archiving Project

    Kelley, Michael
    Library Journal March 15, 2013

    "Eight of Maine’s largest libraries, both public and academic, are about halfway through a major and distinctive project for the shared management and archiving of their print collections and the integration of digital editions into a statewide catalog."

  • Collaborative Stewardship: Building a Shared, Central Collection of Print Legal Materials

    Maes, Margaret K. and Tracy L. Thompson-Przylucki
    Collection Management 37 (3-4) (2012): 294-3062012

    This article describes how two legal resources organizations are currently working toward a collaborative solution to the challenge of providing current materials for today’s legal researchers and preserving materials in print for potential need tomorrow.

  • Cooperative Collection Development. Strategic Agenda.

    Orbis Cascade Alliance. Last Updated: 5/8/12

    Orbis Cascade Web Site

  • Shared Print Collections

    California Digital Library.  Last Updated: 4/26/12

    California Digital Library Web Site

  • MCLS and SCS

    Lugg, Rick
    Sample and Hold (Blog) March 2012

  • CIC Universities to Co-invest in a Shared Print Repository

    CLI eNews June 2011

  • Collaborative Collection Management in a High-density Storage Facility

    Seaman, Scott
    College and Research Libraries 66(1) (2005): 20-27 2005

    This is a case study of four Colorado institutions that opened a shared high-density storage facility. Challenging policy issues are described, as related to selection, ownership, operations, and access.

  • Last Copy Project Overview

    Consortium of Academic and Research Librairies in Illinois (CARLI)

    CARLI Web Site

Theory and practice

  • Short on Space, Libraries Look to One Another for Solutions

    Howard, Jennifer
    The Chronicle of Higher Education October 7, 2013

    "[These] twin pressure points—too many print books plus new demands on library real estate—have spurred academic libraries to try a set of state and regional experiments to free up library space to suit modern learning styles and still make sure that somebody, somewhere, hangs onto books that make up part of the intellectual record, even if those books haven't circulated in years."

  • Re-Inventing Shared Print: A Dynamic Service Vision for Shared Print Monographs in a Digital World

    Stambaugh, Emily
    Against the Grain V25 N42013

    There are significant differences in the use of print and digital monographs perhaps creating a need for an alternative service vision.

  • Rethinking Collection Management Plans: Shaping Collective Collections for the 21st Century

    Demas, Samuel and Mary E. Miller
    Collection Management 37 (3-4) (2012):168-187 2012

    The authors offer practical advice on developing a collection management plan in a collaborative context.

  • Library Logistics: Archiving and Servicing Shared Print Monographs

    Lugg, Rick.
    Against the Grain June 24(3) (2012) June 2012

    The infrastructure for regional or national preservation is being built with the assumption of shared rather than individual responsibility.

  • Curating Collective Collections

    Demas, Sam and Mary Miller
    Against the Grain February 24(1) (2012) February 2012

    Elements of a good collection management plan include a framework for life-cycle management. What will be retained on central campus in open stacks, what will be transferred to special collections, what will be transferred to storage, what will be reformatted, and what will be withdrawn.

  • 21st-Century Collections and the Urgency of Collaborative Action

    ARL Fall Forum Proceedings October 2011

    A series of slide decks and video recordings.

  • Research Librarians Consider the Risks and Rewards of Collaboration

    Howard, Jennifer
    The Chronicle of Higher Education October 16, 2011

  • Shaping a National Collective Collection: Will your library participate?

    Demas, Sam and Wendy Lougee
    Library Issues 31(6) (2011)August 2011

    There is intense pressure on libraries to withdraw redundant print holdings that are accessible online. How does a campus administrator help to manage these challenges? How will the nation responsibly manage its enormous legacy collections in the years ahead?

  • Curating Collective Collections – Prospectus for a New ATG Column

    Demas, Sam
    Against the Grain January 23(6) (2011): 71 January 2011

    The aims of this new bi-monthly column—Curating Collective Collections—are to keep librarians current with issues and developments in shared print archiving, and to broaden the conversation about how we can collectively and thoughtfully re-select (and de-select) and care for our massive print general collections for which digital surrogates exist.

  • Less is more: Managing monograph collections in the 21st century

    UK Research Reserve (UKRR) 2011

  • Dare to Share

    Wellcome Collection Conference Proceedings September 2010

    Preservation Advisory Centre (UK)

  • OCLC Print Archives Disclosure Pilot - Final Report

    Beginning in late 2010, an ad hoc Coordinating Committee consisting of several individuals who were active in the shared print (print archiving) community began to explore ways in which libraries could use OCLC features and services to disclose retention commitments and support resource sharing for shared print resources. The Coordinating Committee defined and conducted an OCLC Print Archives Pilot Project to develop a recommended approach and to test and validate its basic functionality.

  • Regional and National Cooperation on Legacy Print Collections

    Kieft, Robert H. and Bernard Reilly
    Collaborative Librarianship1(3) (2009): 106-108 2009

    This reports on a meeting convened by the Center for Research Libraries on July 10, 2009, in Chicago for representatives of more than a dozen library consortia and other organizations with an interest in shaping a national approach to long-term preservation of and access to print collections.

  • Shared Print Policy Report

    Malpas, Constance
    OCLC Research 2009

    This report focuses on the joint agreements that memorialize shared intent by formalizing institutional commitments and terms in writing.

  • The Networked Library Service Layer: Sharing Data for More Effective Management and Co-operation

    Gatenby, Janifer
    Ariadne 56 July 30, 2008

    Janifer Gatenby identifies criteria for determining which data in various library systems could be more beneficially shared and managed at a network level.

  • Results of a Cooperative Collection Management Survey

    Nilges, Chip
    OCLC Slides - ARL Membership Meeting 2006

  • Print Preservation at the Local Level – The Five College Experience

    Bridegam, Willis. E.
    Library Collections, Acquisitions, & Technical Services 28(1) (2004): 29-38. 2004

    This paper discusses the development of this depository and considers regional needs for preservation of print materials.

Collection assessment

  • Less Is More: Origins of University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point Collection Assessment Plan

    Reich, Thomas
    Proceedings of the Charleston Library Conference 2013

    Describes a weeding and collection assessment effort at the University of Wisconsin while focusing on "less is more" perspectives. Their retention guidelines and "multiple copy process" are provided in an appendix."

  • The SCS Monographs Index

    Lugg, Rick
    SCS Insight September 25, 2013

    The averages reported in the 2013 SCS Monographs Index are based on print monographs data from 57 libraries, representing 26,189,000 holdings.

  • What is Unique About Unique? An Assessment to Uncover and Value Distinct Collections Within the Main Library Collection

    Stoddard, Rick E., Laurel Kristick, Andrea Wirth
    2013 Acquisitions Institute of Timberline Lodge May 2013

    This study will examine measures of value associated with library collections and how they might be leveraged to test and uncover potentially unique collections.

  • Academic Branch Libraries: Assessment and Collection Development

    Poole, Julie
    Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning 3(3/4), (2009): 192-205. 2009

    Mercer University's Regional Academic Center Libraries use quantitative and qualitative means for assessing collections in an ongoing project.

  • Indicators for collection evaluation: A new dimensional framework

    Borin, Jacqueline and Hua Yi
    Collection Building 27(4) (2008): 136-1432008

    This paper bridges two different evaluation models, collection-based and user-based. Includes a literature review.

  • Assessment in a tight time frame: Using readily available data to evaluate your collection

    Crosetto, A. et al.
    Collection Management 33(1/2) (2008): 29-50. 2008

    This paper highlights how readily available data were used to evaluate the volumes in the reference collection and the circulating collection in order to maximize the space for the renovation projects at the University of Toledo.

  • Guide to Review of Library Collections: Preservation, Storage, and Withdrawal

    Lambert, Dennis K., et al.
    2nd ed. (Collection Management and Development Guides, No. 12) Lanham: Scarecrow Press; published in cooperation with the Association for Library Collections & Technical Services 2002

    This book offers a thorough introduction to the topic for libraries of all types and sizes wishing to plan and formulate reviews of materials in their general collections, regardless of format.

  • De-selection: What are we throwing out?

    Leja, I
    Art Libraries Journal 27(2) (2002): 40. 2002

    Published in the UK and available from British Library Direct.

  • Selecting for Storage: Local problems, local responses and an emerging common challenge

    Hazen, Dan
    LRTS 44(4) (2000): 176 2000

    The author explores criteria that can be employed in selecting materials for storage as well as the interplay between these criteria, the mechanics of storage operations, and the pressures associated with storage goals.

  • Books Not for College Libraries

    Farber, Evan Ira
    Library Journal 122(13) (1997): 44-45 1997

    Although weeding can save libraries money, shelving time, and increase circulation, it can create serious political problems for college librarians. Proposes a method of compiling lists of candidate titles for weeding based on a comparison of recommended titles lists contained in three editions of Books for College Libraries.

  • Obsolescence of music literature

    Diodato, Virgil P., and Fran Smith.
    Journal of the American Society for Information Science 44(2) (1993): 101-112. 1993

    Results from this study included average median citation ages of 14.0 years for references to journal articles and 16.0 years for references to all types of documents. Musicology obsolesced most slowly (median citation age equal to 22.0 years), followed by music education (14.3 years), and music theory (9.6 years).

  • Reviewing for preservation, storage, and weeding

    Mosher, P.H.
    Collection Management: a New Treatise. Edited by C.B Osborn and R. Atkinson (Foundations in library and information science, 26B). Greenwich: JAI Press. (1991): 375-376.1991

  • Predicting Individual Book Use for Off-Site Storage Using Decision Trees

    Silverstein, Craig and Stuart Shieber
    Library Quarterly 66(3) (1996): 266-293 1966

    The authors explore various methods for predicting library book use, as measured by circulation records.

Collection use

  • Can in-house use data of print collections shed new light on library practices? Statistical evidence from a five-year longitudinal study in China

    Xi Han, Min Song, Chunqiu Li, Qinghua Zhu
    Journal of Librarianship and Information Science February 2018

    This study found that in-house use of print materials was positively correlated with the check-out use. In-house use represented 26.78% of the total circulation, on average. Academic bound periodicals and reference books were rarely used in-house. The in-house use ratio differed greatly among subjects, and subjects with frequent check-out use approximated the average ratio. Collections with high check-out use also had a high in-house use ratio. Of the books, 46.1% of the titles were used only in-house, and titles of in-house use were 1.5 times that of check-out use, although the average frequency of in-house use was lower than check-out use.

  • Are Print Books Dead? An Investigation of Book Circulation at a Mid-Sized Academic Library

    Rose-Wiles, Lisa M.
    Technical Services Quarterly 30(2) 2013

    In this article the author analyzes circulation of print books at Seton Hall University Libraries using the WorldCat Analysis tool and Voyager data. Only 21.5% of the collection circulated between 2005 and 2009, but circulation varied by subject area. Circulation was higher for subjects with more current collections. Over one-third of recent science books circulated, while older science books had low circulation. Print book circulation declined by 23% between 2005 and 2009.

  • Measuring Collection Use

    Lugg, Rick
    Sample and Hold (blog) April, 2012

  • The End of Academic Library Circulation?

    Kurt, Wil
    ACRL TechConnect February 1, 2012

    Unless current patterns change, by 2020 university libraries will no longer have circulation desks.

  • OhioLINK OCLC Collection and Circulation Analysis Project 2011

    Julia Gammon and Edward T. O’Neill
    OhioLINK Collection Building Task Force, Dublin: OCLC Research 2011

    6% of books drive 80% of use.

  • Report of the Collection Development Executive Committee Task Force on Print Collection Usage

    Cornell University Library (Submitted to the Collection Development Executive Committee October 22,2010 Revised November 22, 2010

    Approximately 45% of print monographs in the CUL collection published since 1990 have circulated at least once to date; approximately 55% of these books have never circulated.

  • Determining Use of an Academic Library Reference Collection: Report of a Study

    Colson, Jeannie
    Reference and User Services Quarterly 47(2) (2007): 168-175

    A small academic library did a five-year reshelving study led them to reconsider the nature of the reference collection, and to develop a new collection management policy.

  • Analyzing Library Collection Use with Excel®

    Greiner, Tony and Bob Cooper
    Chicago, American Library Association 2007

    Practical, step-by-step instructions.

  • The Impact of Evolving Information-Seeking Behaviors Upon Research Libraries

    Heath, Fred
    Journal of Library Administration 46(2) (2007): 3-16

    This paper describes the efforts of one research library to respond to the pressures of the digital age while sustaining its efforts to build enduring repositories of the human record.

  • What’s Coming Off the Shelves? A Reference Use Study Analyzing Print Reference Sources Used in a University Library

    Bradford, Jane T.
    The Journal of Academic Librarianship 31(6) (2005): 546-558

    To what extent is the print reference collection being used? Use of the print collection at a small private university was tracked for a four-month period. The results suggest that the reference collection is too big and underused.

  • A Circulation Analysis of Print Books and E-Books in an Academic Research Library

    Littman, Justin and Lynn Silipigni Connaway
    Library Resources and Technical Services 48(4) (October, 2004): 256-262

    This study found that e-books received 11 percent more usage than comparable print books.

  • Weeding Book Collections in the Age of the Internet

    Banks, Julie
    Collection Building 21(3) (2002): 113-119

    The weeding project at Southeast Missouri State University presented an opportunity to identify different variables, i.e. shelf level, book jackets, added entries, and untraced series, that impacted a book’s circulation behavior and to consider the relationship between circulation and the Internet/online database activity.

  • Obsolescence and stress: A study of the use of books on open shelves at a university library

    De Jager, K.
    Journal of Librarianship and Information Science (Folkestone, England) 26 (1994): 71-82

    This article suggests that the Library could develop an informed weeding policy that will enable it to remove from the shelves those materials that have remained unused or little used for 25 years or more.

  • A use statistic for collection management: the 80/20 rule revisited

    Britten, William A.
    Library Acquisitions: Practice & Theory 14(2) (1990): 183-189

    Trueswell's findings are substantiated for the overall collection in that 20% of the most-circulated items account for about 80% of the circulations. Substantial deviation is found, however, when the statistic is computed for individual LC classes.

  • Use of Library Materials at a Small Liberal Arts College

    Hardesty, Larry
    Collection Management 10(3/4)1988

    Replication of the Kent study found similar book use pattern.

  • Does weeding increase circulation? A review of the related literature

    Roy, Lorien
    Collection Management 10(1-2) (1988): 141-156

    This paper examines the literature on weeding over the past century, ans seeks to document results of the effect of weeding on circulation.

  • A Reply to the Kent Study

    Borkowski, Casimir, David Brumble and Murdo J. MacLeod
    Library Journal April 1 (1981): 710-713

    Urges library administrators to reject the findings of the Kent Study concerning the curtailment of library acquisitions and the sharing of library materials. The Pittsburgh Senate Library Committee raises serious questions of flawed methodology in the conduct of the study.

  • Correlating the Subjects of Books Taken Out of and Books Used Within an Open-Stack Library

    McGrath, William E.
    College and Research Libraries XXXII (1971): 280-285

    Out-of-library circulation totals were found to be reliable indicators of in-library use. For predicting in-library use (and thus total use) two methods are cited: simple ratio of out to in, and the regression equation.

  • Use of Library Materials: The University of Pittsburgh Study

    Kent, Allen et al.
    New York: M. Dekker 1979

    One of the most comprehensive studies of collection usage patterns undertaken to date.

  • Patterns in the use of books in large research libraries

    Fussler, Herman Howe and Julian L. Simon
    Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1961

  • The Division of library books in use, and books not in use, with different storage methods for the two classes of books

    Eliot, Charles William
    The Library Journal 27(7) (1902): 51-56

    Eliot, then President of Harvard University—felt by some to be thinking and writing on this topic ahead of its time. Reprinted in Collection Management 2(1) Spring 1978. 7

Collection futures

Collections research

  • Strength in Numbers: The Research Libraries UK (RLUK) Collective Collection

    Malpas, Constance Brian Lavoie
    OCLC Research 2016

    In partnership with Research Libraries UK (RLUK), OCLC Research has produced a detailed characterization of the collective collection of the RLUK membership, with special emphasis on print books. This report examines the size, scope, and overlap patterns of the RLUK collective collection, supplemented with additional perspective from comparison to the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) collective collection and the global library system as a whole. This study is of particular interest to the RLUK membership, but is also relevant to any group of higher education institutions engaged in, or planning, cooperative efforts around their collections.

  • Potential weeding candidates among 19th and early 20th century books

    Andy Breeding
    05 December 2014

  • A closer examination of 19th and early 20th century books

    Andy Breeding
    09 October 2014

  • Understanding the Collective Collection: Towards a System-wide Perspective on Library Print Collections

    Dempsey, Lorcan, Brian Lavoie, Constance Malpas, Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Roger C. Schonfeld, JD Shipengrover, and Günter Waibel
    OCLC Research 2013

    This report brings together work that OCLC Research has done in providing a quantitative, analytic, system-wide view of library collections. This work has established an evidence base that has allowed libraries to begin the shift from local provisioning of library collections and services to increased reliance on cooperative infrastructure, collective collections, shared technology platforms, and "above-the-institution" management strategies.

  • Optimising the number of copies and storage protocols for print preservation of research journals

    Yanoa, Candace Arai & Zuo-Jun Max Shenb & Stephen Chanc
    International Journal of Production Research 51(23-24)2013

    This research presents models for two storage protocols, both of which have the goal of finding minimum-cost or Pareto optimal policies for ensuring, with a high probability, survival of at least one copy for a specified time horizon. One protocol involves archiving only clean copies in a secure environment, and the second protocol is a hybrid approach that combines clean copies with backup copies that can be ‘cleaned up’ to replace clean copies that are lost or damaged.

  • Print Archive Plans at OCLC (Slides)

    Harnish, Kathryn
    OCLC 2011

    Offers an overview of OCLC's disclosure strategy - to be tested.

  • Cloud-sourcing Shared Research Collections: Managing Print in the Mass-digitized Library Environment

    Malpas, Constance
    Dublin: OCLC Research2011

    The objective of this research was to examine the feasibility of outsourcing management of low-use print books held in academic libraries to shared service providers, including large-scale print and digital repositories.

  • Beyond 1923: Characteristics of Potentially In-copyright Books in Library Collections

    Lavoie, Brian and Lorcan Dempsey
    D-Lib Magazine 15(11/12)2009

    The focus of this article is on print book titles that are either in-copyright or potentially in-copyright.

  • Library Storage Facilities and the Future of Print Collections in North America

    Payne, Lizanne
    OCLC Programs and Research2007

    The author concludes that high-density library storage facilities have moved into the mainstream for collection management in academic libraries, and that this is the optimum time for the academic and library community to develop a broader, system-wide approach to maintaining print collections across institutional boundaries.

  • Last Copies: What's at Risk?

    Connaway, Lynn Silipigni
    College and Research Libraries 67(4) (July 2006): 370-3792006

    WorldCat contains twenty-four million records for items held by only a single OCLC member library. The characteristics of these unique materials are not well understood. This study proposes a conceptual model derived from the examination of materials held exclusively by Vanderbilt University Libraries.

  • Changing Global Book Collection Patterns in ARL Libraries

    Jackson, Mary et al.
    Washington DC: Association of Research Libraries2006

    For each of ten world regions, excluding North America, the average number of ARL library holdings per bibliographic record ranges from 2.99 for East Asian books to 6.28 for Latin American books.

  • Books without Boundaries: A Brief Tour of the System-wide Print Book Collection

    Lavoie, Brian and Roger C. Schonfeld
    Journal of Electronic Publishing 9(2)Summer 2006

  • Anatomy of Aggregate Collections: The example of Google Print for Libraries

    Lavoie, Brian et al.
    D-Lib Magazine 11(9)September 2005

    This article offers some perspectives on the Google Print Library Project in light of what is known about library print book collections in general, and those of the Google 5 in particular, from information in OCLC's WorldCat bibliographic database and holdings file.

  • The Impact of Collection Weeding on the Accuracy of WorldCat Holdings

    Young, Jeffrey
    A Master's Research Paper submitted to the Kent State University School of Library and Information Science2002

  • Global Collective Resources: A Study of Monographic Bibliographic Records in WorldCat

    Perrault, Anna H
    OCLC Newsletter 249 (2001): 6-72001

    A 10% systematic random sample of the WorldCat database was analyzed utilizing the OCLC iCAS product to profile the monographic bibliographic records in WorldCat by type of library, subject, language, and publication date.

Digital preservation

Library space planning

  • Library Space as a Service

    Dempsey, Lorcan
    Lorcan Dempsey's Weblog August 31, 2012

    Lorcan comments on two aspects of Stanford's very nice new website.

  • Library Launches Space Planning Initiative

    UC Santa Barbara Library
    News. UC Santa Barbara Web Site. April 4, 2012

  • Non-Convertible Space

    Lugg, Rick
    Sample and Hold (blog) December 2010

  • Space: The Final Frontier

    Lugg, Rick
    Sample and Hold (blog) November 2010

  • The Myth of Browsing: Academic Library Space in the Age of Facebook

    Barclay, Donald
    American Libraries May 19, 2010

    The challenge for academic librarians is how to reduce the size of onsite collections without either destroying the soul of their libraries or sending their faculty to the barricades.

  • Libraries and Learning: A History of Paradigm Change

    Bennett, Scott
    Library Space Planning. Urbana, IL. Web Site. 2008

    The author traces three paradigms in the design of library space that reflect the transformation of information from a scarce to a superabundant commodity. They are the "reader-centered" the "book-centered" and the "learning centered" paradigms of library space design.

  • Shaping Our Space: Envisioning the New Research Library

    Branin, Joseph J.
    Journal of Library Administration 46(2) (2007): 27-53 2007

    How much space should be devoted to print collections and services, and how much space should be devoted to digital services, information commons, and other new demands on library space? The answers are to be found through an exploration of emerging library practices of “content management” and “learning space design” that must be linked to the aesthetics and functionality of effective architecture.

  • Library as Place: Rethinking Roles, Rethinking Space

    Bennett, Scott et al.
    Council on Library and Information Resources 2005

    What is the role of a library when it no longer needs to be a warehouse of books and when users can obtain information without setting foot in its doors?

  • From the Ashes of Alexandria: What's Happening in the College Library

    Demas, Sam
    CLIR Reports 129 2005

    This article suggests that the college library look to the Mouseion as one model for further integrating itself into the community it serves - and for providing a unique cultural center that inspires, supports, and contextualizes its users'

  • Spaces for Social Study

    Cohen, Patricia
    New York Times August 1 (2004): 19 2004

  • Physical Space for Virtual Services and Collections

    Connaway, Lynn Silipigni
    Libraries and the Academy 4(4) (2004): 127-131 2004

    Now that libraries and campuses are wired, the user is becoming unwired. What is the future of the library as a physical space?

  • Libraries Designed for Learning

    Bennett, Scott
    Washington DC: Council on Library and Information Resources 2003

    The author asks whether the goal of libraries today might more appropriately be described as “supporting collaborative learning by which students turn information into knowledge and sometimes into wisdom.”

  • Esprit de Place: Maintaining and Designing Library Buildings to Provide Transcendent Spaces

    Demas, Sam and Jeffery A. Scherer
    American Libraries 33(4) (2002): 65-68 2002

    Discusses library buildings and their role in building community. Reviews current design trends.

  • Building Blocks for Planning Functional Library Space. Lanham: Scarecrow

    Fine, Jerold W.
    Lanham: Scarecrow Press 2001

  • The Library Space Problem, Future Demand, and Collection Control

    Lee, Hur-Li
    Library Resources and Technical Services 37(2) (1993): 147-166 1993

    This paper offers a new way to think about deselection and storage decisions by incorporating the prediction of future demand and cost analysis into one model.

  • Library Space Planning

    Fraley, Ruth A. and Carol Lee Anderson
    New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers 1985

    A How-To manual for assessing, allocating, and reorganizing collections, resources, and facilities.

Offsite book storage

Jump to a specific sub-topic: Case studies and individual programs | Theory and practice

Case studies and individual programs

  • Washington Research Library Consortium (WRLC) Shared Collection

    WRLC Website Last updated September 2012

    WRLC operates a shared offsite storage facility designed to free valuable space in the campus libraries for newer or more frequently-accessed materials. The storage facility provides high-density, environmentally-controlled, retrievable storage for books, audiovisual or microform media, and archival boxes. Individual items are sorted by size in order to store the maximum number of items in the minimum floor area.

  • Florida Academic Repository (FLARE)

    Council of State University Libraries (CSUL) Website Last updated June 2012

    The Statewide Storage Facility’s primary purpose will be the storage of low-use materials from the academic libraries in Florida. It will be a high-density “Harvard” model with a non-browsable organization of material, it will be climate controlled, and it will be located in Gainesville. The facility will house shared copies of monographs, journals, and other items which will be equally and readily available to all state university libraries.

  • A Spa for books

    Lugg, Rick
    Sample and Hold (blog)May 14, 2012

    Facts and observations about ReCAP, a high-density offsite storage facility owned jointly by Princeton, Columbia, and New York Public Library.

  • Weeding an outdated collection in an automated retrieval system

    Bravender, Patricia and Valerie Long
    Collection Management 36 (2011): 237-245 2011

    In 2008 Grand Valley State University Libraries began a large weeding project in the automated retrieval system (ARS) at its Steelcase Library. An estimated 19,000 volumes were to be removed from the ARS. A systematic weeding of the ARS had never been undertaken and it presented a number of logistical challenges. This article discusses the process that was devised for this large weeding project.

  • Off-site storage: an analysis

    Agee, Jim and Sarah Naper
    Collection Building 26(1) (2007): 20-25 2007

    A reflective look at PASCAL in the larger context of off-site storage facilities and practices.

  • Buying Time: The leveraged use of a library storage facility

    Knight, R. Cecilia
    Technical Services Quarterly 24(4), (2007): 29-42 2007

    Grinnell College Libraries

  • High-Density Off-Site Storage: Document Delivery and Academic Library Research Collections

    Seaman, Scott
    Journal of Interlibrary Loan, Document Delivery & Information Supply 13(3) (2003): 91-103

    This article describes a high-density off-site book storage facility operated by a consortium of the University of Colorado and the University of Denver.

  • Temporary Remote Book Storage at the University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries

    Austin, Brice and Scott Seaman
    Collection Management 27(1) (2002): 59-78 2002

    Describes the planning and implementation of a temporary facility for 325,000 volumes.

  • Eliminating duplication in a shared storage facility: Practical and political issues

    Oud, Joanne
    Against the Grain 13(3), (2001): 1, 20-22 2001

  • A Collaborative Approach to Collection Storage: The Five-College Library Depository

    Bridegam, Willis E.
    Council on Library and Information Resources June 2001

    This report offers a case study in the advantages and disadvantages of depository libraries, their economics, and the practical and political issues associated with their creation.

  • Remote shelving comes of age: storage collection management at the University of Michigan

    Lougee, Wendy P.
    Collection Management, 16(2) 1992

    The processes employed at the University of Michigan Library for collection transfers are described, including an analysis of collection use data to develop criteria for storage.

  • Selecting and moving books to a remote depository: A case study

    Seaman, Scott and D. DeGeorge
    Collection Management 16(1) (1992): 137-142 1992

    The selection, processing, and moving of 10,000 titles from a large academic library to an off-campus depository are described. The move was successfully completed without using professional movers or specialized equipment. The criteria for identifying 10,000 seldom-used or at-risk books from 300,000 volumes are listed, and online catalog processing and the physical move outlined.

Theory and practice

Shared print archives and repositories

Jump to a specific sub-topic: Reports and articles | Web resources and programs

Reports and articles

Web resources and programs

  • Center for Research Libraries (CRL) Print Archives Registry

    Center for Research Libraries

    Center for Research Libraries Web Site

  • Center for Research Libraries (CRL) Print Archiving Community Forum

    Center for Research Libraries

    Center for Research Libraries Web Site

  • Connect NY Shared Print Archive Project

    Connect New York

    Connect New York Web Site Initially published: 11/21/2013

    Provides a description of the Connect New York Shared Print program that launched in October 2012 as well as links to key documents: the MOU, Last Copy Guidelines, and details about the retention lists

  • Do We All Need to Keep That? Shared Print Archiving in COPPUL

    Bird, Gwen and Lenora Crema
    BC Library Conference May 2013

    This conference presentation presents a profile of the Shared Print Archive Network from the Council of Prairie and Pacific University Libraries (COPPUL) as of May 2013.

  • Maine Shared Collections Strategy (MSCS)

    Maine Shared Collections Strategy 2013

    Provides details and updates of a project by eight of Maine's largest libraries to create a strategy for shared management of print collections in the state.

  • Michigan Shared Print Initiative (MI-SPI)

    Midwest Collaborative for Library Services 2013

    Describes the Michigan Shared Print Initiative, which launched in 2012 and provides links to the MOU and other project documents.

  • WEST: Western Regional Storage Trust (Web Page)

    California Digital Library Web Site Last updated: March 14, 2011

    The Western Regional Storage Trust (WEST) is a distributed retrospective print journal repository program serving research libraries, college and university libraries, and library consortia in the Western Region of the United States.

  • University of California Libraries' Shared Print Collections

    California Digital Library Web Site Last Updated: April 26, 2012

    Provides information the UC Shared Print Strategic Direction, goals and objectives, and provides reports on the UC Shared Print programs.