Local Holdings Maintenance glossary

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A

AACR2
Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition. The national/international standard for cataloging library materials. The rules are "designed for use in the construction of catalogues and other lists in general libraries of all sizes. The rules cover the description of, and the provision of access points for, all library materials commonly collected at the present time." The rules are maintained by the Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR and published by the American Library Association, the Canadian Library Association, and the Library Association.

address
Words, numbers, or symbols that designate a physical or virtual location. Examples: street numbers and names, countries, e-mail addresses, URLs.

ANSI
American National Standards Institute. A non-profit national clearinghouse founded in 1918 to facilitate standardization by voluntary consensus in the United States in both the public and private sectors and to coordinate and administer standards of all types. ANSI membership includes over 1,400 companies, organizations, government agencies, and other institutions. The United States is represented by ANSI in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Standards for library and information science are developed by the National Information Standards Organization (NISO), a non-profit association accredited by ANSI. The Institute publishes the quarterly newsmagazine ANSI Reporter and the weekly e-newsletter What's New? See also NISO; ISO.

ANSI/NISO Standards for Holdings Data
The standard for holdings data exchange, providing a normative arrangement of data in records so that the data and records can be efficiently shared among users. Current ANSI/NISO standards for holdings data are documented in Holdings Statements for Bibliographic Items (ANSI Z39.71 1999). See also Level 1; Level 2; Level 3; Level 4.

archive record
The bibliographic record OCLC creates and stores that contains local changes made by an institution to the master record. Archive records are a complete history of an institution's OCLC cataloging activity. There are two separate archives. One for batch transactions, Batchload Archive Records (BARS), and the other for online transactions, Cataloging Archive Records (CARS). Archiving allows an institution to recover data that was lost or corrupted locally by ordering a copy of their archive records through OCLC's Bibliographic Record Snapshot service. Archive records are not accessible by the institution through any online means. OCLC uses archive records to create offline products such as catalog cards or electronic files of records. See also BARS, Bibliographic Record Snapshot.

Note: Editing an existing local holdings record (LHR) does not create an archive record. Creating an LHR that sets a library's holdings on a record does create an archive record.

ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A standard computer character code set, consisting of alphanumeric characters, punctuation, and a few control characters (such as a carriage return). Each ASCII character consists of 7 information bits and 1 parity bit for error checking.

assigned search key
A string of characters assigned to an item by an agency which can be used to retrieve the record for that item.

authorization level
Defines a range of tasks that can be performed when logged on to a service. Also called authorization mode.

authorization number
Number assigned by OCLC to authorize use of OCLC services. Usually used in conjunction with a password. See also password, default holding library code.
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B

bibliographic information
Details about an item that are sufficient to identify it for the purpose of retrieval are placed in a specific format that describes one item in a collection. Examples: author, title, publisher, publication location, edition, series title, and notes.

bibliographic record
Contains the cataloging information that describes the physical format and intellectual content of a single entity (a book, video, computer file, CD, etc.). Catalogers create records by encoding this information using tags, indicators, and subfield codes in a standard format called MARC 21 ( MAchine- Readable Cataloging). Each record is divided into fields (author, title, subjects, etc.) Fields are subdivided into subfields (place of publication, publisher, etc.).
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C

call number
A set of letters, numerals or other symbols (in combination or alone) used by a library to identify a specific copy of a work. A call number consists of the class number and book number (or Cutter number).

Cataloging Agent mode
An authorization mode that allows the Cataloging Agent of an institution or a group to process cataloging records on a client's behalf. Agents may also process unresolved records from the group's batchloading activity. See also processing center.

chronology
Types of dates used by publishers to identify the individual bibliographic unit of a serial, for example, date of coverage, date of publication, or date of printing.

classification number
The part of a call number, usually a combination of letters and numbers, used to classify library resources by subject area using a particular classification system.

CODEN Designation
The Chemical Abstracts Service assigns six-character Coden Designations to serials. The first four characters are letters and have a mnemonic relationship to the serial. The fifth character is either A, B, C, or D. The sixth character is an alphabetic or numeric check character. For example, AISJB6, CADIDW. The Coden Designation is located in field 030, subfield ‡a and can be used during batchload matching.

communications format
In machine-readable cataloging (MARC), the standards for representation and exchange of data in machine-readable form. In the USA, this is an implementation of an ANSI standard. MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data (formerly called USMARC) is an implementation of ANSI standard Z39.2. OCLC-MARC is an implementation of MARC 21 that conforms to the ANSI standard. Standards provide a common way of organizing machine-readable records so that they can be easily exchanged among users.

completeness
An indication of how much of a published run of a serial is held. Completeness is indicated in ranges, for example, Complete (95%-100% held), Incomplete (50%-94% held), Scattered (less than 50% held).

conference name
All or part of the name or title of a conference. A conference name could also be included in a title, abstract, notes, or text of a library resource. Examples: names of meetings, exhibitions, expositions, festivals, athletic contests, scientific expeditions.

Continuing Resources format
OCLC-MARC format used for cataloging items issued over time with no predetermined conclusion. The Continuing Resources format includes serials and ongoing integrating resources. In WorldCat searches, use the Continuing Resources index (label: cnr) as a qualifier to limit results to records for this type of material.

corporate name
The names of associations, institutions, businesses, firms, nonprofit enterprises, governments, agencies, performing groups used as entries in records.

CSD
See OCLC Customer Services Division (CSD).

Custom Holdings
Customized groups of preferred lenders; you define the groups for sets of similar requests.

Custom Holdings Group record
A record that contains OCLC symbols of preferred lenders within a particular category (for example, Books or State).

Custom Holdings Locations record
A display associated with a WorldCat record that lists institutions from which you prefer to borrow.

Custom Holdings Path record
A record that contains one or more custom holdings group records sorted in order of borrowing preference.
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D

default
Selections predetermined by the computer or an application on the computer in the absence of specific selections made by the user.

default holding library code
The holding library code that appears automatically in bibliographic field 049 (Local Holdings) when a user displays a bibliographic record in the Connexion client or browser cataloging interface. Each authorization number/password combination has a default holding library code. See also authorization number, password.

default holdings displays
The system responds to a display holdings command with a list of all, regional, or state holdings on a record, depending upon the number of holdings the record has.

delimiter
Character ( ‡), followed by a single letter or number code, used to define the beginning of a subfield within a variable field in a MARC bibliographic or authority record. See also subfield.

For batchload services, the delimiter is entered as a dollar sign ($). If immediately followed by a lowercase letter or single numeral, OCLC converts the dollar sign into a delimiter. A $ followed by a numeral and period, two or more numerals, or a blank space is interpreted as a monetary value and is not converted.

The delimiter is entered as a dollar sign ($). The delimiter character ( ‡) appears in records in display mode. See also subfield.
detailed level information
Holdings statement at the most detailed level of enumeration and chronology. See also Level 4.

Dewey Decimal class number
A classification number that conforms to the conventions used in the Dewey Decimal Classification system. The classes used to identify library resources are: 000, General Works; 100, Philosophy & Psychology; 200, Religion; 300, Social Sciences; 400, Language; 500, Natural Sciences & Math; 600, Applied Sciences (Technology); 700, Fine Arts; 800, Literature; 900, Geography & History.

diacritic
A mark that modifies the phonetic value of another character or characters. It does not occur alone but is used in conjunction with another character. In records each diacritic occupies its own position, directly following the modified character, although the display shows correctly.

directory
In a file of records, the series of entries that contain the tag, length and starting location of each variable field in a record.

display holdings
A command to view the list of institution symbols that hold an item. In WorldCat Resource Sharing, used to select potential lenders.
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E

embedded holdings data
Holdings information added to an existing MARC 21 bibliographic record rather than being in a separate linked local holding record.

enumeration
The nonchronological scheme used by publishers to identify an individual serial and to show the relationship of the individual unit of the serial to the series as a whole. For example, Volume 235 and Volume X are indicators of enumeration.
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F

field
In a record, a marked area in which the same kind of information is consistently entered.

file structure
See record structure.

fill character
A black box or vertical bar in workforms that represents content that must have valid data, or where no attempt is made to provide data.

fixed field
In OCLC-MARC, as defined in OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards, the field in which mnemonic labels identify elements that contain coded information for describing the item and the record. The fixed field has a fixed length. It is a combination of various MARC 21 control fields.

format
A standard for the representation and exchange of data in machine-readable form. Standard organization for MARC bibliographic records. The library community uses formats so that MARC records can be readily transferred among automated systems. See also record structure.

free-text field
A field in which subfields are loosely defined to permit text (rather than coded) data entry.

frequency
The interval at which a publisher distributes a serial publication.

full bibliographic record
The complete display of a bibliographic record, including all fields and subfields.

function keys
Keys and key combinations on the keyboard that transmit signals not associated with printable or displayable characters (examples: F1, F2, etc). In specific applications, such as OCLC Connexion, function keys are programmed to initiate commands.
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G

GAC
Group Access Capability. A group of institutions that use the OCLC system for resource sharing and interlibrary lending. A GAC has full and selective members. A selective user has access to only abbreviated bibliographic records, and only to records for its own group. Groups are composed of at least one Full member and may include Selective members who use WorldCat Resource Sharing only. GAC can also refer to the group itself.

GAC/UL
Group Access Capability/Union List. The same as a GAC, but a selective user also has access to local holdings records for its group.

general retention policy
Denotes the period for which the serial is retained or held by the location, for example, Permanently retained, Retained for a limited period, and Not retained.

government document number
Government-assigned number for materials printed at the expense of and by the authority of any office of the government, for example, United States Superintendent of Documents (SuDoc) numbers. Other government numbers may be used such as Canadian government numbers from the Outline of Classification. The form of these numbers varies.
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H

heading on a list
On the first line of each list or bibliographic record is a heading that describes the search and indicates the number of records retrieved. Depending on the search, the description may include database name, index labels, title phrases, keywords, numeric derived search, qualifier labels and qualifiers.

Help
Electronic user documentation that is available from the Help menu of a specific product such as Connexion, FirstSearch, etc.

holding library
The library or collection within an institution represented by the holding library code. See OCLC holding library code.

holding library code
See OCLC holding library code.

holdings
The total stock of materials, print and nonprint, owned by a library or library system, usually listed in its catalog. Synonymous in this sense with library collection. In a narrower sense, all the copies, volumes, issues, or parts of an item owned by a library, especially a serial publication, indicated in a holdings statement in the record representing the item in the catalog. Holdings can be recorded in the MARC 21 Format for Holdings Information.
1) OCLC institution symbols attached to a record, indicating libraries that own the item described by the record. 2) The collective resources owned or held by the library.

holdings display
A list of OCLC symbols of institutions that hold the item. A holdings display accompanies each bibliographic record in WorldCat. See also Custom Holdings Locations record.

holdings information
The location, status and/or copies associated with a single bibliographic item of a specific publication held by a particular institution.

holdings levels
See also ANSI/NISO Standards for Holdings Data; See also Level 1; Level 2; Level 3; Level 4.

holdings symbol
See OCLC holding library code.
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I

index
A detailed alphabetical or numerical list for a specific kind of bibliographic data provided by the system for retrieving a record or sets of records from a database such as WorldCat.

index label
A two- or three-character code followed by a colon or equal sign that indicates to the system the index against which to match a search term.

initial article
Articles (the, an, a, and non-English articles) that are the first word in a title or corporate name.

institution symbol
See OCLC symbol.

institution-specific file
Records accessible only to an individual institution and OCLC that have been used or will be used by the institution.

International Standard Book Number (ISBN)
A unique identification number assigned to a work by its publisher. OCLC has converted the existing 10-character ISBN to the new 13-character format. The thirteenth character is a check character that may be a number or the letter x. In printed form, the ISBN has three hyphens. Hyphens are omitted in online records. ISBNs are stored in field 020 in bibliographic records.

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
A unique identification number assigned to a serial through the ISSN Network. Each ISSN has eight characters. The eighth character is a check character that may be a number or the letter x. A hyphen follows the fourth character.
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L

Level 1
ANSI/NISO standard that identifies the item at the location level. This can include the institution, the library, the physical site and/or the collection in which the item is located or from which it is available.

Level 2
ANSI/NISO standard that identifies items at the location level (Level 1) and includes record creation date, physical form, completeness, acquisition, retention information and local notes.

Level 3
ANSI/NISO standard that contains all Level 2 information and identifies the item at the summary level of chronology and/or enumeration. See also chronology; enumeration.

Level 4
ANSI/NISO standard that contains all Level 2 information and identifies the item at the detailed level of chronology and/or enumeration. See also chronology; enumeration.

LHR
See local holdings record (LHR).

Local Holdings Agent mode
An authorization mode that allows the Holdings Agent of a union list group to create and maintain local holdings records on a member's behalf.

local holdings format
The communications format for representation and exchange of holdings data created at a library. It is often MARC 21 Holdings format that conforms to the ANSI/NISO standard with variations for local purposes. See also MARC 21 Format for Holdings Data ; local holdings record (LHR).

local holdings information
The information taken from OCLC Local Holdings Records that makes up other Local Holdings displays. For example, group displays and institution displays contain local holdings information. See local holdings format, local holdings record (LHR).

local holdings maintenance
OCLC service that helps libraries maintain accurate, current holdings information by providing a library's holdings for materials in any format, including serials. Formerly called Union Listing.

local holdings record (LHR)
The OCLC record used to contain and exchange holdings data for WorldCat records. Local holdings records form the basis for local holdings displays. The records are based on the MARC 21 Holdings format.

location record
A display of the OCLC symbols of all libraries that have used a bibliographic record in WorldCat for cataloging and have attached their OCLC symbol.
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M

main entry
The entry determined by AACR2 to be the primary access point for the item.

MARC
Machine-Readable Cataloging. An international standard digital format for the description of bibliographic items developed by the Library of Congress during the 1960s to facilitate the creation and dissemination of computerized cataloging from library to library within the same country and between countries. By 1971, the MARC format had become the national standard for dissemination of bibliographic data and by 1973, an international standard.

Several versions of MARC are in use internationally, the most predominant of which is MARC 21, created in 1999 as a result of the harmonization of U.S. and Canadian MARC formats. UKMARC is used primarily in the United Kingdom. UNIMARC is widely used in Europe. Besides formats for bibliographic records, the MARC 21 family of standards now also includes formats for authority records, holdings records, classification schedules, and community information.

MARC 21 Format for Holdings Data
The format for representation and exchange of holdings data from the Library of Congress.

MARC record
See MARC.

monograph
An item complete in one part or a specified number of parts; compare to serial.
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N

NEPU
The Union List group symbol for the United States Newspaper Program.

NISO
National Information Standards Organization. Accredited by ANSI to develop voluntary technical standards for the library, information sciences, and publishing communities. See also ANSI.

NISO standards
See ANSI/NISO Standards for Holdings Data.

Nongap break
In local holdings records, an indication that no issued items are missing, but a gap exists in the publication or numbering of the serial itself. For example, a change in enumeration of the series may cause a nongap break in the enumeration.

Notes
Supply significant additional information about an item described in a bibliographic record.
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O

OCLC
Previously called Online Computer Library Center, Inc. and Ohio College Library Center. Nonprofit membership organization serving libraries around the world to further access to the world's information and reduce library costs by offering services for libraries and their users.

OCLC Connexion
Integrated cataloging service that offers access to WorldCat, the OCLC Authority File and other online databases. The browser interface provides access via Internet Explorer or other browsers. The client interface provides access via Microsoft Windows-based software installed on user workstations. Both interfaces offer the same cataloging capabilities. Each also provides unique capabilities.The browser interface uniquely provides access to CatExpress, Dewey services, local holdings maintenance, and OCLC Selection and supports creation of pathfinders and other electronic resources. The client uniquely supports the use of macros, local files, offline cataloging, integrated label processing, using non-Latin scripts for cataloging, and batch processing searches and record actions.

OCLC Connexion browser
One of two interfaces to OCLC Connexion cataloging services and products. Introduced in mid-2002, the Web-browser-based interface provides the same access to cataloging in WorldCat as the Connexion client. The browser interface also provides some unique functions, including WebDewey and Abridged WebDewey, CatExpress, OCLC Selection, Pathfinders and Local Holdings Maintenance.

OCLC Connexion client
One of two interfaces to OCLC Connexion cataloging services and products. Introduced in the second half of 2003, the Windows-based software interface provides the same access to cataloging in WorldCat as the Connexion browser. The client interface also provides some unique functions, including the use of macros and an automatic macro recorder, extensive keyboard shortcut customization, integrated label printing, local files, offline cataloging, batch processing for searches and record actions, use of non-Latin-based multiscripts for cataloging, and more.

OCLC Customer Services Division (CSD)
OCLC's user assistance and support contact desk that provides support for telecommunications, hardware, and software. Formerly called OCLC User and Network Support (UNS).

OCLC holding library code
A unique code that identifies a holding library within an institution. See also OCLC symbol.
The code also identifies a holding library in a GAC or GAC/UL.

OCLC-MARC
OCLC's implementation of the MARC bibliographic format. See also MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data.

OCLC symbol
A unique identifier assigned by OCLC to member libraries and other participants. OCLC symbols in records and in holdings displays identify libraries that have entered, modified, and used the bibliographic records for cataloging. See also OCLC holding library code.

OCLC Union List
Former name for local holdings maintenance service. See local holdings maintenance.

OCLC User and Network Support (UNS)
See OCLC Customer Services Division (CSD).

Open-ended holding
A holdings statement that indicates an item (such as a serial, a series, or a multipart work) is still in publication.
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P

password
A sequence of characters required to gain access to a computer system. Usually used in conjunction with an authorization number. See also authorization number , default holding library code.

Policies Directory record
Record that contains name, address, interlibrary loan policy, and other communication information about an institution or unit of an institution. The OCLC Policies Directory replaced the Name-Address Directory as a repository for this type of information.
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R

record structure
The order in which content designators and content appear in the record and/or file. Record structure can include such specifications as tape media, header, blocking techniques, and characters sets. The terms record standard and record structure are used interchangeably. See also content designation; content of the record
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S

serial
A publication issued over time in installments. Include annual reports, continuing directories, electronic journals, journals, magazines, monographic series and newspapers, etc. Serial is one of the material types in the continuing resource MARC format for bibliographic records. See Continuing Resources format.

Serials format
See Continuing Resources format.

series
Uniform volumes of a library resource that are related by subject matter, issued successively, and generally by the same publisher in a uniform style.

series title

The collective title of all items in a series, as opposed to each item's individual title.

Example:

Series title—Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics

Title (of individual item in series)—Modes in Denya Discourse

See also title.

set holdings on a record
OCLC member libraries "set" their holdings by attaching their OCLC symbols to bibliographic records in WorldCat. Having OCLC symbols attached to a record establishes that the institution holds the item.

subfield
The smallest unit of information in a variable field. Data in subfields is preceded by a delimiter ( ‡) and a single letter or number code. A subfield a ( ‡a) is implicit at the beginning of most fields (the delimiter and code do not display). See also delimiter.

subfield delimiter
See delimiter.

summary-level holdings
Holdings information about serials at the first (highest) level of enumeration and/or chronology. Summary-holdings information includes copy-specific information. See also Level 3.
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T

title
A word, phrase, character, or group of characters, appearing on an information source that names the item.
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U

uniform title
Collects the publications of an author, composer, or corporate body into a unit. The unit may contain several expressions and manifestations of the work, for example, complete works, works in a particular literary or musical form, or translations into various languages for commonly known or classical works. Examples include sonatas, songs, Aesop's fables, Bible, and translations in various languages of Hamlet. Other uniform titles distinguish between different publications (usually serials) with the same titles.

union list
A complete list of the holdings of a group of libraries of materials (1) of a specific type, (2) on a certain subject, or (3) in a particular field, usually compiled for the purpose of resource sharing. The entry for each bibliographic item includes a list of codes representing the libraries owning at least one copy. Union lists are usually printed, but some have been converted into online databases.
See detailed level information.

Union List Custom Holdings locations
A record of a preferred lender that identifies specific volumes of serials and journals held by an institution; more complete than bibliographic locations records.

Union List group
A network of libraries sharing holdings information with one another, usually for the purpose of gaining wider access to information.

UNS
See OCLC Customer Services Division (CSD).
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V

vendor-provided data
Information sent by the vendor partner in the vendor manifest that is added to the bibliographic records provided to institutions, such as barcodes, invoice numbers, invoice dates, and prices.
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W

workform
An OCLC-MARC template used to create an original record or local holdings record. The system automatically supplies some of the appropriate fields and data, depending on the format you select for the material you are cataloging.

working copy
A copy of the master record, displayed on the user's screen. When the user edits the working copy, the master record remains unchanged. Also called "editing locally."

WorldCat
A database of tens of millions of online records built from the bibliographic and ownership information of contributing libraries. The WorldCat database is the largest and most comprehensive of its kind. OCLC members use WorldCat for a full array of technical library services, including cataloging, interlibrary loan, reference, union listing, local holdings, and many more.WorldCat is the foundation of many OCLC services that let your library process, manage and share information resources. And with its records now opened to Web search, bookselling and bibliography sites, holdings in your collection are even more easily located and obtained by both your local patrons and a broad-based Internet usership.

WorldCat Resource Sharing
See OCLC WorldCat Resource Sharing.