All about Crosswalks

This page lists the metadata standards other than Dublin Core and MARC that we have considered so far, for which Web-accessible crosswalks have been written. The crosswalks are listed in Section 2. This section also has pointers to several useful sites that have large collections of crosswalks, but such information is incomplete because each crosswalk exists in a complex social context. To fill in the gaps, Section 1 identifies, for each metadata standard: 1) the home page of the organization that sponsors it; 2) the latest version of the complete specification; and 3) formal encodings, such as XML and RDF. Section 3 lists papers that discuss theoretical issues in the creation of crosswalks.

Jean Godby
Last updated October 2002

Metadata standards

  • CanCore - Canadian Core Learning Resource Metadata Application Profile
    "CanCore is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata (PDF: 165K/44pp.) standard for facilitating the interoperability of learning objects using the Internet. CanCore has defined a sub-set of data elements from the IEEE-LOM data model."
  • GEM - The Gateway to Educational Materials
    GEM is:
    • "...a consortium effort to provide 'one-stop, any-stop'access to the substantial, but uncataloged, collections of Internet-based educational materials available on various federal, state, university, non-profit, and commercial Internet sites.
    • "...a consortium of 400 + organizations and individuals who support the goals and mission of the GEM Project.
    • "...a set of metadata standards and technical mechanisms that provides efficient, simple access to educational materials."
      • More
      • GEM 1 element set
      • GEM 2 element set
  • LOM - Learning Object Metadata
    "The purpose of [the LOM] Standard is to faciliate search, evaluation, acquisition, and use of learning objects, for instance by learners or instructors or automated software processes. This multi-part Standard also facilitates the sharing and exchange of learning objects, by enabling the development of catalogs and inventories while taking into account the diversity of cultural and lingual contexts in which the learning objects and their metadata are reused."
    • More, including the LOM element set (PDF: 165K/44pp.)
    • A high-level view of the LOM elements
  • ONIX
    " ONIX International is a standard for representing and communicating book industry product information in electronic form. It aims to achieve the following objectives:
    • To cover not only books but also other media which are published and distributed through the book industry.
    • To meet the practical information needs of all sectors of the industry, including but not limited to online booksellers.
    • To reflect the realities of national and international rights, distribution, pricing and availability."
      • More (PDF: 105K/18pp.)
      • The ONIX standard and an XML DTD
  • SCORM
    "The Sharable Content Object Reference Model ( SCORM) defines a Web-based learning "Content Aggregation Model" and "Run-Time Environment" for learning objects. The SCORM is a collection of specifications adapted from multiple sources to provide a comprehensive suite of e-learning capabilities that enable interoperability, accessibility and reusability of Web-based learning content. The work of the ADL Initiative to develop the SCORM is also a process to knit together disparate groups and interests. This reference model aims to coordinate emerging-technologies and commercial and/or public implementations."
    • More
    • The SCORM Specification

Crosswalks

Crosswalks involving the standards listed above
CanCore to SCORM
ONIX to MARC 21
LOM to Dublin Core
GEM to MARC
Some useful collections
Crosswalks collected by The Getty
Crosswalks collected by Kent State School of Library and Information Science
Crosswalks collected by the MIT DSpace project
Crosswalks collected by UKOLN
XML encodings and crosswalks collected by the Library of Congress

Issues in the creation and implementation of crosswalks

  • Lynne C. Howarth, " Modelling a Metalevel Ontology" Accessed October 7, 2002
  • Margaret St. Pierre and William P. Laplant, Jr., (1998) " Issues in Crosswalking Content Metadata Standards"

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