| ‡a-‡h - ||Enumeration captions |
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Subfields ‡a-‡h contain the captions for the levels of enumeration applicable to a bibliographic item. These caption subfields are correlated with the enumeration subfields ‡a-‡h in the 864 Enumeration and Chronology field linked to the 854, although the same subfields need not always be present. Full correlation of caption and enumeration level subfields ‡a-‡h in linked 854/864 fields is recommended in OCLC local holdings records. If there is no caption on the item for some level, a caption may be invented and enclosed in brackets ([ ]) or an asterisk used in place of data in order to achieve full correlation.
When alternative numbering schemes are applicable to an item, subfields ‡g and ‡h contain the alternative enumeration captions. If captions for more than two levels of alternative enumeration are required, an 867 Textual Holdings field is used.
When only chronology captions are used on an item (that is, the item carries no enumeration), the chronology captions are contained in the relevant enumeration caption subfields (‡a-‡h). If a chronology caption is not to be used in a display of the 864 Enumeration and Chronology field, it is enclosed in parentheses, for example, (year).
When the enumeration consists of the number of units held followed by a term describing the units, the entire phrase is contained in the 864 field, and the 854 field contains the term unit (in parentheses if display is not desired).
| ‡a - ||First level of enumeration |
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Subfield ‡a contains the caption for the highest level of enumeration. The designation for an unnumbered (e.g., new ser.) or a numbered (e.g., ser. 5) series is considered part of the caption.
| ‡b - ||Second level of enumeration |
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Subfield ‡b contains the caption for the second level of enumeration.
| ‡c - ||Third level of enumeration |
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Subfield ‡c contains the caption for the third level of enumeration.
| ‡d - ||Fourth level of enumeration |
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Subfield ‡d contains the caption for the fourth level of enumeration.
| ‡g - ||Alternative numbering scheme, first level of enumeration |
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Subfield ‡g contains the caption for the highest level of an alternative numbering scheme.
| ‡h - ||Alternative numbering scheme, second level of enumeration |
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Subfield ‡h contains the caption for the second level of an alternative numbering scheme.
| ‡i-‡m - ||Chronology captions |
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Subfields ‡i-‡m contain the captions for the levels of chronology applicable to a bibliographic item. These caption subfields are correlated with the chronology subfields ‡i-‡m in the 864 Enumeration and Chronology field linked to the 854 field, although the same subfields need not always be present. Full correlation of caption and chronology level subfields ‡i-‡m in the 854/864 fields is recommended in OCLC local holdings records. Because bibliographic items generally do not carry chronology captions, a caption may be invented and enclosed in brackets ([ ]) in order to achieve full correlation.
When an alternative chronology scheme is applicable to an item, subfield ‡m contains the alternative chronology caption. If captions for more than one level of alternative chronology are required, an 867 Textual Holdings field is used.
When only chronology captions are used on an item (that is, the item carries no enumeration), the chronology captions are carried in the relevant enumeration caption subfields (‡a-‡h) and no captions are recorded in subfields ‡i-‡m. If a chronology caption is not to be used in a display of the 864 Enumeration and Chronology field, it is enclosed in parentheses, e.g., (year).
| ‡i - ||First level of chronology |
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Subfield ‡i contains the caption for the highest level of chronology.
| ‡j - ||Second level of chronology |
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Subfield ‡j contains the caption for the second level of chronology.
| ‡k - ||Third level of chronology |
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Subfield ‡k contains the caption for the third level of chronology.
| ‡l - ||Fourth level of chronology |
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Subfield ‡l contains the caption for the fourth level of chronology.
| ‡m - ||Alternative numbering scheme, chronology |
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Subfield ‡m contains the caption for an alternative chronology scheme.
| ‡n - ||Pattern note |
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Subfield ‡n contains an explanatory note citing the specific year and issue used to prepare the regularity pattern coding expressed in the field.
| ‡o - ||Type of unit |
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Subfield ‡o contains a caption that describes the type of unit (e.g., annual buyer's guide, subject index) in the enumeration hierarchy when it has no associated sequence numbering. When used, subfield ‡o immediately follows the caption to which it applies.
|854 || ||00 ||‡81 ‡av. |
|864 ||3 ||41 ||‡81.1 ‡a31 ‡oSupplement |
If the title of the unit is different from the indication of the type, the title is recorded in subfield ‡o (Title of unit) of the 864 Enumeration and Chronology field.
| ‡p - ||Number of pieces per issuance |
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Subfield ‡p contains a numeric value that represents the number of physical parts or pieces received per issuance. This technique allows for describing the behavior of items issued in parts. Subfield ‡p is only coded in cases where the number of parts or pieces is different from the publishing frequency expressed in subfield ‡w. All codable frequency information should be placed in subfield ‡w.
| ‡u - ||Bibliographic units per next higher level |
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Subfield ‡u contains either a number that specifies the total number of parts or units that comprise the next higher level of enumeration or the code var or und. Subfield ‡u may be used with each level of enumeration except the first level (subfield ‡a or ‡g) because there is no higher level. When it is used, subfield ‡u follows the caption subfield for the enumeration level to which it applies.
| <n> - ||Number of parts |
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The total number of parts that constitute the next higher level of enumeration for example, a quarterly publication requires 4 issues to make 1 volume. Because subfield ‡u is variable in length, no leading zero is used for a single-character number.
Combined issues are counted as one part.
| var - ||Varies |
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Code var is used when the total number of parts that constitute the next higher level of enumeration varies so much that a specific number in subfield ‡u would be meaningless.
| und - ||Undetermined |
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Code und is used when the next higher level of enumeration is known to have parts but the number of parts is unknown.
| ‡v - ||Numbering continuity |
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Subfield ‡v contains a one-character code that indicates whether the enumeration has continuously incrementing numbers or whether the numbering restarts at the completion of a specific unit. Subfield ‡v may be used with each level of enumeration except the first level (subfield ‡a or ‡g). Subfield ‡v follows the caption subfield and the subfield ‡u (Bibliographic units at next higher level) for the enumeration to which it applies.
| c - ||Number increments continuously |
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| r - ||Number restarts at the completion of the unit |
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| ‡w - ||Frequency |
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Subfield ‡w contains either a one-character alphabetic code or a number that indicates the publication frequency of the item. Subfield ‡w is not related to a specific caption. It is input following the last chronology caption used. Specific publishing pattern information is contained in subfield ‡y (Regularity pattern), including exceptions to the frequency coded in this subfield. Subfield ‡p is also used when both a frequency code and number of pieces per issuance need to be recorded for multipart titles. Codes
A one-character alphabetic code is used for a publishing pattern that has a fundamental periodicity, for example, code q indicates that the item is published quarterly.
|a - Annual ||j - Three times a month |
|b - Bimonthly ||k - Continuously updated |
|c - Semiweekly ||m - Monthly |
|d - Daily ||q - Quarterly |
|e - Biweekly ||s - Semimonthly |
|f - Semiannual ||t - Three times a year |
|g - Biennial ||w - Weekly |
|h - Triennial ||x - Completely irregular |
|i - Three times a week || |
A number is used to specify the number of issues per year when no codable periodicity exists. Because subfield ‡w is variable in length, no leading zero is used for a single-character number.
| ‡x - ||Calendar change |
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Subfield ‡x contains one or more two- or four-character numeric codes that indicate the chronological point at which the highest level increments or changes. Codes
A two-character code identifies the month or season of change. A four-character code in the pattern mmdd (2 for the month and 2 for the day) identifies the month and day of change. A month or day code of less than two digits is right justified and the unused position contains a zero.
|Month ||Day ||Season |
|01-12 - Month ||01-31 - Day ||21 - Spring |
| || ||22 - Summer |
| || ||23 - Autumn |
| || ||24 - Winter |
When there is more than one change in a year (for example, 12 numbers per year are issued as 2 volumes per year), all of the calendar change codes are contained in one subfield ‡x and the codes are separated by a comma. Subfield ‡x is not related to a specific caption. It is input following the last subfield.
| ‡y - ||Regularity pattern |
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Subfield ‡y contains codes that describe the regularity of the publishing pattern coded in subfield ‡w (Frequency). The subfield may be structured as either a chronology type or enumeration type. Both types begin with a publication code.
The first one-character code in both the chronology type and enumeration type indicates whether the subsequent codes refer to the publication or the nonpublication of part(s) of the item or the combination of either enumeration or chronology elements.
|c - Combined |
|o - Omitted |
|p - Published |
The chronology type of regularity pattern is structured as:
|<Publication Code><Chronology Code Definition>,<Chronology Code> |
|<Chronology Code>,... |
The subfield may contain one or more chronology codes that are associated with the publication code and chronology code definition that are in the first and second character position of the subfield. The subfield may be repeated to allow for coding more than one publication code/chronology code definition/chronology code string to indicate regular exceptions to a specified regularity pattern (i.e. normalized irregulars).
Chronology Code Definition - The second one-character code in the subfield indicates whether the subsequent Chronology Code(s) represent the name of a day, a numeric month or month and day code, a code for a season of the year, or a code for a week of the month or year. If the subfield describes regularity in terms of enumeration, this code is "e".
|d - Day |
|m - Month |
|s - Season |
|w - Week |
|y - Year |
Chronology Code - The chronology code in the chronology type indicates the designation of the part of the item for which regularity pattern information is provided. Multiple codes are separated by a comma. A slash (/) is used to designate combined issues.
Two-character alphabetic or numeric codes are used for days, weeks, months, and/or seasons. A four character code is used to indicate a year or year combination. A code of less than two digits is right justified and the unused position contains a zero. Chronology Type and Code Patterns :
|Chronology Type Code ||Possible Chronology Code Pattern ||Example ||Example Meaning |
|d ||dd ||su ||Sunday |
|d ||DD ||08 ||Eighth day of each month |
|m ||MM ||09 ||September |
|d ||MMDD ||0925 ||September 25 |
|s ||SS ||22 ||Summer |
|w ||WWdd ||03we ||Third Wednesday |
|w ||MMWWdd ||0599tu ||Last Tuesday in May |
|w ||MMWWdd ||0802we ||Second Wednesday in August |
|w ||MMWW ||1204 ||Fourth week in December |
|y ||YYYY ||yyy1/yyy2 ||Span over 2 years |
Pattern Description :
|Pattern ||Meaning ||Characteristics ||Possible Values - Summary |
|dd ||day ||alpha ||mo-su |
|DD ||day ||numeric ||01-31 |
|ww ||week ||numeric ||01-53 |
|WW ||week ||numeric ||99, 98, 97, 00, 01, 02, 03, 04, 05 |
|MM ||month ||numeric ||01-12 |
|SS ||season ||numeric ||21, 22, 23, 24 |
|y ||year ||numeric ||2002 |
Pattern Values :
|Day of week- dd |
|mo - Monday |
|tu - Tuesday |
|we - Wednesday |
|th - Thursday |
|fr - Friday |
|sa - Saturday |
|su - Sunday |
|Week of Month- WW |
|99 - Last |
|98 - Next to Last |
|97 - Third to Last |
|00 - Every |
|01 - First |
|02 - Second |
|03 - Third |
|04 - Fourth |
|05 - Fifth |
|Season- SS |
|21 - spring |
|22 - summer |
|23 - autumn |
|24 - winter |
The enumeration type is structured as:
|<Publication Code><Enumeration Code Definition>,<Enumeration Code> |
|<Enumeration Code>,... |
An enumeration code may occupy the second and third positions after subfield ‡y to provide for regularity patterns for items that use only enumeration for sequencing and/or those items whose sequencing must be specified separately when combinations occur.
Enumeration Code Definition - The second code in the subfield indicates whether the subsequent codes represent enumeration rather than chronology. When code "e" is used, an additional numeric code is added to indicate the level of enumeration to which the regularity applies.
|e1- Enumeration, lst level |
|e2- Enumeration, 2nd level |
Enumeration Code - The enumeration code following the enumeration code definition indicates the designation of the issues of the item for which regularity pattern information is provided. Multiple designations are separated by a comma. A slash (/) is used to designate a combined issue.
The presence of continuous numbering (subfield ‡v, code c) in conjunction with an enumeration code signals the combination of specific numbers in the sequence of specific issues. Because of the continuous numbering, the actual enumeration values cannot be used to express the enumeration in subfield ‡y. Enumerative values must be represented in terms of the number of issues expected to be published to allow combined issue prediction to occur.
Automated systems may construct algorithms to predict the second level of continuous enumeration based on the starting value of the second level of enumeration at the beginning of the subscription cycle.
The Regularity pattern codes, along with additional examples are maintained at the Library of Congress and are available online at: www.loc.gov/marc/chrono_patterns.html.
| ‡z - ||Numbering scheme |
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Subfield ‡z contains a six character code string used to designate the numbering scheme used on a publication. The codes allow for recording different numbering schemes at different levels of enumeration.
Type of designation - The first one-character code indicates whether the numbering is a number, letter or combined (number first or letter first). Combined should only be used when one of the elements is a constant designation (e.g., 1a, 2a, 3a), rather than actually two different levels of enumeration (e.g., 1a, 1b, 1c).
|a - Number |
|b - Letter |
|c - Combined, number first |
|d - Combined, letter first |
|e - Symbol or special character |
Case - The second one-character code indicates if a numbering scheme is conveyed as alphas and applies both to those coded in the previous position as "b" or to Roman numerals.
|a - No case |
|b - Lower case |
|c - Upper case |
|d - Mixed case |
Script Code/Type Code - The third through sixth positions indicate either the script used in the numbering scheme or, for numerals or symbols that are not in alternate scripts, the type of numeral or symbol used. The script code is a four-character code from the list at: www.unicode.org/iso15924/. The type code is as follows:
|an - Arabic numeral |
|rn - Roman numeral |
|sy<symbol> - Symbol |
| ‡2 - ||Source of caption abbreviation |
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Subfield ‡2 contains the MARC code that identifies the source of the abbreviations used in the captions of the field. Code from Caption Abbreviation Source Codes .
| ‡3 - ||Materials specified |
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Subfield ‡3 contains information that specifies the range of volumes or dates to which the field applies.
| ‡8 - ||Field link and sequence number |
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Subfield ‡8 contains data that identifies linked holdings data fields and may also propose a sequence for the linked fields. Subfield ‡8 is required in 854 fields in OCLC local holdings records.
The structure and syntax for subfield ‡8 in the 854 field is: ‡8<linking number>
The linking number is the only data element used in subfield ‡8 in the 854 field. It is a variable-length whole number that occurs in subfield ‡8 in all 864 fields that are to be linked to the 854 field. Fields with the same linking number are considered linked. A linking number of "0" (zero) is not used in this field.
Subfield ‡8 is always the first subfield in the 854 field.
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Compression only can be applied to Holdings level 4 detailed holdings statements (Leader/17, code 4) and Holdings level 4 detailed holdings statements with piece designation (Leader/17, code 5).
Expansion can be applied to both types of detailed holdings statements (Leader/17, code 4 or 5) and to Holdings level 3 summary holdings statements (Leader/17, code 3).
Compression and expansion require that the caption subfields (‡a-‡m) for each of the applicable levels of enumeration and chronology subfields (‡a-‡m) must be present in the 854 Captions and Pattern field that is linked to the 864 Enumeration and Chronology field.
Publication pattern subfields ‡u-‡y
No publication pattern subfields in field 854 are required for either compression or expansion when the enumeration and chronology in field 864 consist only of the highest level of enumeration (subfields ‡a, ‡g, ‡i, ‡m). When subsequent levels are present, the compression or expansion capability requires pertinent publication pattern information in the following subfields:
|‡u ||Bibliographic units per next higher level |
|‡v ||Numbering continuity |
|‡w ||Frequency |
|‡x ||Calendar change |
|‡y ||Regularity pattern |
Compression of the contents of subfields ‡a-‡m in field 864 requires information in subfields ‡u and ‡v. Subfield ‡u may not contain the code var (varies) or und (undetermined).
Expansion of the contents of subfield ‡a-‡m in field 864 requires information in subfields ‡u, ‡v, and ‡w and may also require information in subfields ‡x and ‡y.
A period following an abbreviation used as a caption is carried in the MARC record.
To indicate that ordinal numbers should be displayed, a plus sign (+) may be used preceding the caption. If no caption is entered, a plus sign may be recorded alone to indicate display of the corresponding 864 subfield as an ordinal number.
Note that there is no requirement that this technique of distinguishing between ordinal and cardinal numbers be used, nor is there any requirement that any differentiation need be made. A system would require internal language tables to display the correct ordinal numbers. There is no provision in the holdings format for communicating these tables.
If there is no caption on the item for some level, a caption may be invented and enclosed in brackets () or an asterisk used in place of data in order to achieve full correlation. Parentheses are used around a caption to suppress display.
|853 || ||3 ||‡81 ‡av. ‡b[no.] |
[Caption is invented and is not on the piece]
|853 ||2 || ||‡81 ‡av. ‡i(year) |
|863 ||3 || ||‡81.1 ‡a1-10 ‡i1988-1998 |
The abbreviations used in subfields ‡a-‡h are recorded according to the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (Appendix B: Abbreviations).
A single 854 Captions and Pattern field may apply to more than one 864 Enumeration and Chronology field if the contents of the subfields remain constant. The 854 field is repeated when the contents of the subfields varies. For items that have continually varying captions and pattern, an organization may choose to use the Textual Holdings (867) field.